|The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca)
was an armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week, 1916. Irish republicans
had long wanted to end British rule in Ireland and break off from Great
Britain and Ireland. With the start of World War I in 1914, they saw an
opportunity to establish a republic. Lasting six days, the Rising began
on Easter Monday, April 24 1916, before it was crushed by superior British
the Rising, use was made of both artillery and armor in an urban setting,
with areas of resistance being isolated and reduced by the concerted use
of infantry, armor and artillery.
Civilians who intermingled with combatants suffered both by accident
and deliberately at the hands of both sides. Because of the close proximity
of civilians and combatants, the medical and paramedical services of the
city, in addition to the medical services of the combatants, were brought
into action in a manner which had not been demanded of them before.
Following the split in the at the outbreak of war, Patrick Pearse,
Director of Organization, drew up an organizational plan whereby the Irish
Volunteers were based on primary tactical units called companies whose
members would be drawn from an area called the Company District. The company
was to consist of three Officers and 100 men with an Ambulance Section
of eight men. While the members of the Special Sections, such as Cycle
Scouts, Transport and Supply and Ambulance, were to be trained for their
respective specialized services, all members of a Company would be trained
as riflemen and scouts.
At battalion level, a Hospital Corps was to consist of four men, commanded
by a surgeon captain who was responsible for the hospital work of the battalion.
Of course, the Irish Volunteers never reached this level of organization
and, at best, some rudimentary training in first aid was provided at company
In the case of the Irish Citizen Army, each member was trained in first
aid by Dr. Kathleen Lynn, who had been appointed Chief Medical Officer
by James Connolly. The Irish Citizen Army was unique among nationalist
organizations in providing both military and medical training to all members,
irrespective of gender. Lynn had been awarded an MB, BCH, BAO by the Royal
University of Ireland in 1899 and had become a Fellow of the Royal College
of Surgeons in Ireland (FRCS) in 1909.
Na Fiánna Eireann,
The nationalist youth movement which had been founded in 1909 by Countess
Markievicz and Bulmer Hobson, undertook, as part of their training, a graded
series of tests of proficiency in first aid in addition to scout training,
military exercises and tuition in the Irish language and Irish history.
Cumann na mBan
organization was first suggested as a women's auxiliary to the Irish Volunteers
by Maud Gonne MacBride in 1914. The unit was modeled on the French Red
Cross which provided first aid and elementary nursing training to all young
French women when they left school.
In addition to training in first aid there was provision for training
in drill, signaling and the use of small arms. One of the first moves by
Cumann na mBan was to seek to affiliate to the Red Cross in Geneva and
a letter written in Irish, with a French translation, was sent seeking
The Red Cross authorities replied that they could not admit any country
which did not have a standing army as that organization had to work with
the military command. It was suggested that Cumann na mBan affiliate to
the British Red Cross Society which was organized in Ireland.
The Dublin City locations which were occupied by, and the approximate
strengths of, the battalions of the Dublin Brigade, Irish Volunteers (IV)
||Four Courts, King Street, Church Street area
|| Jacob's Biscuit Factory, Kevin Street, Camden Street
||Eamonn De Valera
||Boland's Bakery, Grand Canal Street, Westland Row, Northumberland Road
||South Dublin Union, Marrowbone Lane, James's Street, Ardee Street
Military Medical Services
The overall magnitude of the problem with which the Public Hospital
system had to deal can be seen from Table 2 which is based on official
data issued in May, 1916. The figure for deaths among the ranks of the
Irish Volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army is derived from a later source
There are no estimates of the numbers of wounded or missing Irish Volunteers
or Irish Citizen Army men or women
Royal Army Medical Corps
Prior to the outbreak of War medical services were provided at each
major Army barracks by the officers and men of the Royal Army Medical Corps
(RAMC). Officers, who usually held the rank of Major or Captain, provided
a limited hospital service within barracks while the noncommissioned officers
and men acted as orderlies and paramedics in the sick bays and barrack
Specialist medical and surgical services were provided by serving medical
officers who held the rank of lieutenant-colonel as well as by retired
Army medical officers who were in private practice and who held honorary
military rank. As can be seen from the rank distribution for December 1915
in Table One above there were substantial reductions in the numbers of
captains and majors by comparison with the 1913 figures while there was
a doubling of the number of holders of the rank of lieutenant-colonel.
The eight-fold increase in the number of lieutenants reflects the numbers
of holders of temporary commissions for the duration of hostilities while
in the case of the Military Nursing Service there is a threefold increase
in the number of staff nurses. These substantial changes in the numbers
of junior doctors and nurses were due to the change in the nature of the
medical service provided by the Army in Ireland from a general medical
service to a specialized service designed to process large numbers of wounded
men and train junior doctors for service at the Front.
The three major military hospitals in Ireland were located at Cork,
which had 88 beds, at the Curragh with 302 beds and at Arbour Hill, Dublin,
where The King George V Military Hospital had 462 beds. These figures include
30 beds in the Families Hospital at the Curragh and a total of 30 beds
in accommodation, plus:
|Isolation hospital - Dublin
|Isolation hospital - Curragh.
At the military hospitals was provided by members of Queen Alexandra's
Imperial Military Nursing Service.
King George V Military Hospital
A RAMC Company provided patient care and an outpatient service at the.
Richmond Barracks. A RAMC Company company also provided orderlies for
the two other Dublin barrack hospitals which were at Portobello Barracks,
with 71 beds and at the Richmond Barracks which had 6 beds. The officer
in charge of medical faculties at Portobello Barracks was Maj. Charles
Augustus John Albert Black, RAMC, a graduate of Edinburgh University, who
had been Honorary Surgeon to the Viceroy in India and had served with the
South Africa Field Force during the Boer War.
For the duration of hostilities in Europe the ceremonial apartments
of Dublin Castle, the Throne Room, the Anteroom, the Picture Gallery and
the Supper Room, were converted to hospital accommodation for the treatment
of men who had been wounded in France. The nursing staff numbered about
60 with a matron and assistant matron and a large number of members of
the Red Cross Voluntary Aid Detachment who were nursing auxiliaries. There
was an operating theatre in this hospital and the specialist medical and
surgical staff were members of the RAMC.
Table 1: Army Medical and Nursing Services Royal Army Medical Corps
|Deputy Director Medical Services
|Deputy Assistant Director
Imperial Military Nursing Service
In addition to the Army medical service, the voluntary agencies were
part of integrated health care infrastructure. A pictorial chronicle of
the Easter Rising said that "voluntary aid in Dublin has, since the outbreak
of the European War, been brought to a high pitch of organization and efficiency.
The British Red Cross detachments and the St. John Ambulance Brigade form
an enthusiastic army of voluntary nurses and stretcher-bearers ... and
the scheme of motor ambulances, so highly organized by the Irish Automobile
Club, ... has done (highly) successful service in the transport of wounded
soldiers of war from the hospital ships".
The Headquarters and Protective Troops were located in the O'Connell
Street and Henry Street Area with a strength of 170, including an estimated
20 members of the Irish National Guard.
A special force of 30 under Capt. Sean Heuston was dedicated to hold
the Mendicity Institute. The Irish Citizen Army (ICA, with an estimated
strength of 100, was located in the Saint Stephen's Green area under the
command of Commandant Michael Mallon with a small detachment which was
less than 50 in number, under Capt. Sean Connolly being involved in operations
in the Dublin Castle area. The remaining members of the Irish Citizen Army
joined the Irish Volunteer and Irish National Guard as part of the force
occupying the O'Connell Street sector.
the British Army had no previous experience of this type of warfare, being
primarily trained to operate 'in the field' outside built-up areas, the
extremely rapid response by the Army, bad mistakes by its opponents who
failed to take an aggressive initiative and a large measure of luck made
the final result inevitable by the end of the first day, Easter Monday.
The fact that the Army was able to split Dublin City on an east-west axis
running from Kingsbridge Station to Trinity College and, consequently,
isolate the individual positions held by the Irish Volunteers and the Irish
Citizen Army allowed them defeat their opponents in detail.
Sir Thomas Myles:
When the 1st Battalion, Irish Volunteers, began occupying positions
in the Four Courts area, Sir Thomas Myles approached Commandant Ned Daly
and pointed out that wounded soldiers were being treated in the Richmond
Hospital. Myles asked Daly not to take over the hospital or to demand use
of facilities. Daly agreed and an improvised medical aid post was set up
in the Father Matthew Hall on Church Street.
Sir Thomas Myles had qualified in 1881, had become an FRCSI in 1885
and had obtained an MD in 1889. He practiced surgery at the Richmond, Jervis
Street and Dr. Stevens' Hospitals and had been president of RCSI from 1900
to 1902. He was a lifelong nationalist and friend of Erskine Childers through
a mutual interest in sailing. His steam-yacht, Chotah, had been used to
land guns for the Irish Volunteers at Kilcoole in July, 1914. He held the
rank of temporary lieutenant-colonel RAMC being involved in treating wounded
soldiers at the hospitals where he practiced.
Eilis Bean UI Chonail:
A member of Cumann na mBan, UI Chonail was sent from the GPO to the
1st Battalion on Easter Tuesday and joined 11 other women in the Father
Matthew Hall. A further 12 members of Cumann na mBan were stationed in
the Four Courts building. Each woman was equipped with a white armlet even
if she were not qualified in first aid and was engaged in stretcher bearing
duties, dressing wounds and carrying food to the men at the barricades.
As the fighting intensified , it was not possible to leave the Hall to
bring in the wounded many of whom were treated in the Richmond Hospital.
"The doctors were very sympathetic. Sir Thomas Myles was in charge.
When we had brought in the last of the stretcher patients he put his hand
on my shoulder and I thought he was going to have me arrested. But he just
asked me whether we had got any sleep during the week. I said no and he
patted my shoulder, saying (that) we girls had done trojan work with the
wounded. Strange to relate none of our patients were arrested although
the hospital was raided for suspects. Those wounded who escaped also evaded
Capt. Eamonn Martin:
Martin aid that some 25 wounded Irish Volunteers were under the care
of Sir Thomas and the other medical staff in the Richmond Hospital. Martin
had first met Myles during the landing of the guns at Kilcoole. When he
(Martin) had been wounded, Myles operated on him. After the surrender,
Martin was under surveillance by the police at the hospital and was expecting
to be arrested when he had recovered. The medical record showed that Martin
was recuperating from an operation by Sir Thomas for an abscess on the
lung rather than recuperating from a gunshot wound. When he was fit to
be moved Myles, dressed in his RAMC uniform, escorted Martin in his chauffeur-driven
car to the Linden Convalescent Home, Blackrock. Martin wrote that
"It was rather amusing to me to nod to the policemen as they saluted
the high-ranking khaki-clad officer beside me."
Lt. John Cahill:
In the case of the 2nd Battalion, Irish Volunteers, who had occupied
the Jacob's Biscuit Factory, Lt. John Cahill, who was a chemist, acted
as medical officer.
Mr. Thomas Orr:
The factory caretaker, who had been taken prisoner when the building
was first occupied, fell ill on Wednesday and demanded a doctor. His request
was refused as it was felt that he was trying to escape and, in turn, he
refused to accept assistance from Cahill.
Mr. Henry Fitzgerald:
The night watchman at the factory was also held prisoner. He said that
on the same night as Orr had complained, "I took ill myself and asked for
some medical aid which was not granted. The chemist later brought me some
purging medicine but this I was afraid to take"
Capt. J. T. McCullagh:
McCullagh, educated at St. Andrew's College and Trinity College Medical
School, was wounded while collecting casualties in front of Jacob' s Factory.
He had joined the RAMC on the outbreak of war and had served in Gallipoli
with the 7th Battalion, Royal Dublin Fusiliers. He was stationed at Portobello
Barracks after his recovery from a wound and typhoid fever.
Commandant Eamonn De Valera, Officer Commanding 3rd Battalion Irish
Volunteers sent the members of Cumann na mBan, who were attached to his
unit, back to the GPO on Easter Monday. Individual companies of this Battalion
provided first aid from their limited resources during the fierce fighting
in the Battalion sector of operation.
Mr. Charles Hachette Hyland, LDS, RCSI:
A dental surgeon, Hyland donned his white coat and helped rescue Sherwood
Foresters who were ambushed at Mount Street Bridge on Wednesday, April
26. He was shot on the following day when looking out the back door of
his residence, 3 Percy Place, Northumberland Road.
South Dublin Union
4th Battalion, Irish Volunteers
Which had occupied the South Dublin Union had no members of Cumann
na mBan stationed with them in the Union, There were 26 members of Cumann
na mBan at the Marrowbone Lane Distillery and they "cooked, gave first
aid and carried dispatches" There is no record of the treatment of the
casualties in this area of operations.
Nurse Margaret Keogh:
A member of the staff of the South Dublin Union, Keogh was killed during
the fighting in the eastern part of that complex on Easter Monday. Her
death was the subject of questions in House of Commons and the undersecretary
for War said that she had been accidentally shot.
General Post Office
George Henry Mahony, Indian Army Medical Service
Who had graduated from the National University of Ireland in 1913,
had been invalided home following an accident. He was taken prisoner near
Amiens Street Station early on Easter Monday afternoon, and was brought
under escort to the General Post Office. Mahony was interrogated by The
O'Rahilly and Desmond Fitzgerald on the following morning and was brought
by Fitzgerald to the field hospital which had been set up in the GPO. There
he saw a selection of surgical instruments, including a veterinary thermometer,
and a haphazard collection of drugs and other medical supplies. He was
joined by a John MacLoughlin, a chronically unsuccessful medical student
of 10 years standing. MacLoughlin had joined the Irish Volunteers in the
GPO on impulse. Volunteer James Ryan, a medical student at St. Vincent's
Hospital, had charge of the hospital which was staffed by members of Cumann
na mBan. There was a first-aid post and, in a large sorting room, beds
for the more seriously wounded.
Few casualties were treated by the medical staff until the morning of
Thursday, April 27, when the British forces began to isolate the position
and the east side of Sackville Street was ablaze. Mahony found himself
in an invidious position torn between his duty as a doctor and his duty
as an Army officer. He decided that it was not disloyal to assist the wounded
and he, along with Ryan and MacLoughlin, treated James Connolly who had
received a serious wound in the lower leg.
On the evening of Friday, April 28, Mahony was part of a group, lead
by Capt. Michael O'Reilly and Desmond Fitzgerald, which set out to reach
the Coliseum Theatre on Henry Street through the adjacent houses. This
party included 16 wounded Irish Volunteers and 12 of the 15 members of
Cumann na mBan who had been in the GPO. Mahony was called back to the GPO
to render further aid to Connolly who was incapacitated and in severe pain.
On his return to the Coliseum Theatre, the party tried to get to Jervis
Street Hospital by way of Middle Abbey Street under the cover of a Red
Cross flag. Their way was blocked by a group of Sherwood Foresters to whom
they surrendered and Mahony was released. Volunteer Ryan stayed with Connolly
and was one of the last to leave the GPO as he had to take care of the
casualties which occurred during the evacuation. He escaped to Moore Lane
where he had to treat further casualties with the scant medical supplies
which he had been able to bring in an apothecary's basket,
On the evening of Saturday, April 29, this group of Irish Volunteers
laid their 18 wounded out on the pavement in Moore Street and surrendered.
member of Cumann na mBan, O’Farrell was one of the three women who remained
with the GPO garrison after its evacuation to Moore Street. She passed
through the British Army lines and met Brigadier General W. H. M. Lowe,
who was in charge of the forces in Dublin, carrying a verbal message from
Commandant - General P. H. Pearse in relation to the terms of surrender.
She subsequently accompanied Pearse to meet Lowe when the formal surrender
took place. In company with Captain H. de Courcy Wheeler, she went to the
various Irish Volunteer and Irish Citizen Army positions carrying the order
to surrender. Capt. Wheeler was a brother of Surgeon William Ireland de
Courcy Wheeler of Mercer's Hospital.
Dr. Kathleen Lynn
Dr. Kathleen Lynn, who had been appointed Chief Medical Officer by
James Connolly. The Irish Citizen Army, was unique among nationalist organizations
in providing both military and medical training to all members, irrespective
of gender. Dr. Lynn had been awarded an MB, BCH, BAO by the Royal University
of Ireland in 1899 and had become a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons
in Ireland (FRCSI ) in 1909.
She was driven to City Hall after leaving medical supplies with the
Irish Citizen Army unit which had occupied St. Stephen's Green. She attended
Capt. Sean Connolly who had been fatally wounded while in charge of the
Irish Citizen Army group which had entered and withdrawn from Dublin Castle
shortly after noon on Easter Monday. They occupied City Hall which was
captured following a counterattack by troops from Dublin Castle and Dr.
Lynn was taken prisoner.
St. Stephen's Green
When the members of the Irish Citizen Army occupied St. Stephen's Green,
Madeleine Ffrench-Mullen set up a Red Cross post in one of the summer houses.
College of Surgeons
the buildings on the north side of the Green were occupied the Irish Citizen
Army were forced to retreat to the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
building which they occupied until surrendering on Sunday, April 30l. A
small hospital equipped with stretchers and a first-aid kit was set up
in a room at the rear of the College. The history of the College records
that "Everywhere were huge glass jars filled with objects for students,
pebbles and specimens. In an adjoining room, the jars had parts of human
bodies preserved in liquid." and that "Space beneath the seats of the chemistry
lecture theatre in the rear of the building was fitted up as a mortuary."
The College history continues
"From the date of surrender until Saturday, May 27th , the College
was occupied by 400 men of the 5th Lincolnshire Regiment, with twelve officers,
under the command of Colonel Walter. Each of these officers was subsequently
presented with a silver cigarette case by the grateful College. A subcommittee
of the College was appointed to arrange an application for compensation,
and the registrar, Alfred Miller, prepared a statement of claim, for which
he was granted an honorarium of £100. An estimate of £764 was
accepted in April of the following year for the repair of damage resulting
from the rebellion."
The college bedel who had inadvertently allowed the ICA access to the
College when he opened the main door to admit Dr. John Knott, an "elderly,
erudite and eccentric" Fellow of the College who lived on York Street,
was summarily dismissed from the service of the College when, following
a search of the premises by the military, a pair of silver-backed ladies'
hairbrushes were found under the floorboards of the dining room of his
Accused of taking or concealing those items he was dismissed with a
payment of £2 in lieu of notice, and his formal petition for a reconsideration
of his case was rejected. The bedel and his family had been confined to
their living quarters for the duration of the occupation of the College
and he had served the College for 26 years.
St. Vincent's Hospital
Dr. Louis Courtney:
Who had graduated from UCD in 1915, was a house surgeon at St. Vincent's
Hospital. He wrote that a civilian casualty was brought into Emergency
shortly after firing had been heard by him on Easter Monday when the Irish
Citizen Army was occupying St. Stephen's Green. That casualty, who was
dead on arrival, was quickly followed by two others who were suffering
from gunshot wounds. When he went to see James Ryan, who was the resident
medical student, he found that Ryan had not slept in his bed and had not
been seen in the hospital during that morning. Ryan did not return to the
hospital until he had served a period of internment in Frongoch having
seen action in the GPO. On the following morning Courtney was asked to
take charge of the medical administration of the hospital by the Reverend
Mother as many members of the medical staff were unable to get to the hospital.
Mr. Richard Francis Tobin
Affectionately known as Daddy Tobin, a surgeon at the hospital who
lived on St. Stephen's Green, stayed in the hospital for the duration of
the Rising. Tobin had been a Brigade Surgeon in the Indian Army Medical
Service, and had held the post of assistant professor of surgery at the
Army Medical School, Netley. He had qualified in 1864 and was Surgeon in
Ordinary to His Excellency, the Lord Lieutenant, and held the post of His
Majesty's Inspector of Anatomy in Ireland. His son had been killed in action
in Gallipoli. Courtney said that
"Tobin was fearless and felt in his element at the fighting but he
was completely mystified by it and wondered what the rebels, as he called
them, thought would result from an action of that kind. Stephen's Green,
which he looked around, he considered to be an absolute trap and if and
when the military took some of the surrounding houses, nobody would escape
alive from it. ... He went around to Volunteers in the Green, who were
of the Liberty Hall section of the Citizen Army, and explained this to
them but they just passed it off and made no comment, ... Tobin then went
down Grafton Street, where he found large crowds looting the shops. I think
the first one was a confectionery shop there and he immediately set to
with his blackthorn stick and beat them out left and right shouting, ‘Looting
in time of war is punishable with death.’ They ran from him in all directions
and he pursued this line from shop to shop through the town."
A motor ambulance was obtained by the Hospital and was used to bring
in wounded Irish Citizen Army men and Irish Volunteers for treatment. These
men were reluctant to go to hospital as they feared being subsequently
picked up by the military authorities. Overflow cases from Sir Patrick
Dun's Hospital were brought to St. Vincent's later in the week as the former
hospital was very overcrowded with patients lying on mattresses in the
On the Wednesday of Easter Week, Dr. Courtney sanctioned the use of
the ambulance to bring a nurse to her home at Ballybough Road to check
on her elderly mother. He said that:
"On the way through O'Connell Street , there was nothing in particular
to be seen. There were just the sandbagged windows of the Post Office,
occasional shots and a dead horse at the road side, We collected one wounded
man, a civilian, on the way, having been stopped by his friends."
He was witness to one of the final acts of the Rising being present
at the surrender of the 3rd Battalion, Irish Volunteers. Of this event,
"On Sunday, we went with the ambulance in to the Mount Street area
and at approximately, three o'clock we learned that the occupants of Boland's
Mills were surrendering. We stopped opposite what was then known as the
Elpis Hospital (Nursing Home) and which has now passed into other hands.
We watched while the garrison marched down in military order with their
rifles and dropped them as they passed the hospital. That is, opposite
about 72 or 73 Lower Mount Street, where I was standing. They looked exhausted,
bedraggled and I would say somewhat disappointed, but under perfect control.
... As we waited ... one of the (Army) officers came to the ambulance and
asked what we were doing there. I said we were there to attend the wounded
and take them to hospital, if necessary. 'Well,' he said, ‘you don't appear
to be very busy at present, so perhaps you might move on'.... We went back
to the hospital and gradually it became evident that the Rising was at
the end or practically so, although I had no opportunity of seeing what
was occurring in other areas."
Dr. Courtney said that Surgeon Tobin attended James Connolly who was
held in Dublin Castle after the surrender and 'formed a very intimate friendship
with him'. I understand that their first meeting was rather stormy when
in true military fashion he upbraided Connolly and asked him if he realized
(that) he would be executed. Connolly answered that he did and from then
on Tobin's admiration for him increased.
He was literally amazed at the books which Connolly asked him to bring
in when he offered to get him some reading matter. He saw him every day
and it was once my privilege to go with him to the Castle Hospital and
see the wounded leader but very little was said on that occasion. Tobin
was also present at the execution and came in afterwards to St. Vincent's
Hospital, rather downcast. But still he said (and almost one felt with
some sadness ) that is the punishment for rebellion in time of war and
that Connolly understood that from the word go and had no idea or hope
or belief that anything else could occur."
Commandant Thomas Ashe:
The only military success by the Irish Volunteers occurred when the
5th Dublin (Fingal) Battalion, under the command of Commandant Thomas Ashe,
ambushed and defeated a superior force of Royal Irish Constabulary near
Ashbourne on the Friday of Easter Week,
Dr. Richard Francis Hayes:
From Lusk, who was the Medical Officer with the battalion, set up a
small field hospital near the site of the ambush. Eight RIC men and one
Irish Volunteer were killed in this action while fourteen RIC and three
Irish Volunteers were wounded. Dr. Hayes, who was the medical officer of
the Lusk Dispensary District, had qualified from RCSI in 1905.
Mount Street Bridge
Mr. J. F. Cronin:
President of the Preston Irish Literary Society who was an eyewitness
to the battle at Mount Street bridge, Cronin wrote, "I saw a soldier lying
on the canal bridge apparently dead. Suddenly a woman came out into the
open with what looked like a blue enamel jug. She ran down the canal bank
and disappeared from view. Then a poor girl ran out on to the bridge while
yet the bullets from rifles and revolvers were flying thickly from both
sides. She put up both her hands, and almost instantly the firing ceased.
Again the woman turned up, and she and the girl picked up the soldier,
others then going out from the crowd to help bring him in. He was then
taken into Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital. It was a throbbing incident which
brought tears to the eyes, and the crowd cheered the little heroine.
Several more soldiers were hit, and again the little girl ran out and
brought them in time after time. I saw about eight soldiers taken into
that hospital wounded, and I helped one in myself along with others of
the crowd. The man I helped was reached by a little girl before we got
him in, and she pushed an apron down his trousers to staunch the blood.
He was shot in the small of the back and in the thigh. He was a Sherwood
Forester and the little girl was crying over him."
Mr. L. G. Redmond Howard:
Another eyewitness, wrote that he and a Methodist clergyman "made our
way to Dun's Hospital, where the doctors and nurses in their uniforms stood
in the doorway, and we discussed the chances of rescue work, and within
a couple of minutes we had all spontaneously determined to venture under
the Red Cross.
"I was given a white coat and a stretcher, and with poor Charlie ( Hachette)
Hyland, who was afterwards shot accidentally by a stray bullet, I went
forth with the rest of the staff. Anticipating us all, however, were two
young girls in their teens, who had together rushed up with water and stood
beside the prostrate men - and a great cheer went up from soldiers and
crowd, and the Sinn Feiners immediately stopped firing. Loo Nolan and Kathleen
Pierse were there names, as I afterwards found out, and as Dr. (Myles )
Keogh observed 'They must have been the bravest little colleens in all
Ireland' for without Red Cross or white cloak they had taken all the risk,
at which we even hesitated.
"For two solid hours, we were backwards and forwards on that bridge,
but never to my dying day will I forget the heroism of those Dun's nurses,
who literally flocked out to danger, sometimes making a huge white barrier
between the combatants, so that shots went like a great spray over their
Dr. Myles Keogh:
To whom reference was made by Mr. Howard, was a dentist who lived at
4 Lower Mount Street and was dental surgeon at the Dublin Skin, Cancer
and Urinary Hospital, 3 Hume Street. Keogh was active with the staff of
Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital during the battle at Mount Street Bridge. On
the Sunday of Easter Week, he was returning from Glasnevin Cemetery on
a hearse which, under the Red Cross flag, had brought bodies for burial
there. At the Poor Law Dispensary which was opposite the Hospital he was
hailed by two men, Commandant Eamonn De Valera and a military cadet named
MacKay who had been captured by the insurgents and held prisoner for five
days. Cadet MacKay told Keogh that the Irish Volunteers wished to surrender
and Keogh contacted Sir Arthur Ball, a surgeon at Sir Patrick Dun's, to
make the necessary arrangements with the Army. Sir Arthur, who like Sir
Thomas Myles held the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel RAMC, was Consultant Surgeon
to the Wounded Soldiers in Ireland as well as being Regius Professor of
Surgery at the University of Dublin.
Table 2: Dublin City Hospitals 1916
|1st, Btn, IV
|2nd, Btn IV
|3rd. Btn. IV
||Royal City of Dublin
||Royal Victoria Eye & Ear
||Sir Patrick Dun's
|4th. Btn. IV
||Rotunda Lying In
||Dublin Castle Red Cross
||St. Stephen's Green National Children's
||Drumcondra Hospital, Whitworth Road
||Temple Street Children's Hospital
||Cork Street Fever Hospital
||Incorporated Orthopedic Hospital,
Upper Merrion Street
||Skin, Cancer and Urinary Hospital, Holles Street
||St. Michael's Hospital, Kingstown
When considering the problems which were experienced by individual institutions
the hospitals shown in Table 2 are grouped roughly by area of operation
of the Irish Volunteer battalions and the Irish Citizen Army units.
In the case of the Richmond Hospital it was reported that shortly after
midday on Easter Monday, Father Albert, a priest from Church Street, brought
in the body of a child who had been shot through the head. The telephone
in the Old Richmond was commandeered by the insurgents but following vigorous
protest it was agreed that the hospital premises would be treated as neutral
territory. Existing patients were moved from the male wards into the North
Dublin Union and the adjacent auxiliary hospitals to make beds available
for casualties which numbered about three hundred during the week, The
majority of the male casualties were civilians, many of them adults injured
while trying, under fire, to get food for their families. As the danger
increased beds were placed on the floor to avoid bullets which were being
fired from the rooftops. In the middle of the week food ran short at the
hospital and Miss Hezlett, the Lady Superintendent, organized an expedition
to replenish stocks. On a white sheet the words" Richmond Hospital Supplies"
were marked with black tape and Dr. John Hackett Pollock, a recently qualified
member of the hospital staff, and two students, bearing this banner, took
a borrowed horse and cart out of the hospital. Passing several times through
the firing they crossed to the south side f the city and returned safely
with supplies. The number of persons treated during the week for bullet
wounds and detained was 37 and about 100 had their wounds dressed and were
discharged. Sir Thomas Myles, Dr Joseph Francis O'Carroll, a physician,
and Dr. Alfred Boyd, an anesthetist, were singled out for praise by the
Board of Governors for remaining at their posts during the period of the
disturbances while they, in turn, drew the attention of the Board to the
courageous way in which the entire resident medical and nursing staffs
and servants had devoted themselves to the service of the hospitals during
that very trying time. The Secretary reported that the Master of the North
Dublin Union, Mr. D. Fagan, had shown great kindness to the hospitals by
supplying them with bread, groceries, butter and eggs which could not be
obtained elsewhere at the time.
Admissions to the Adelaide Hospital comprised four dead soldiers and
one dead civilian with 70 wounded soldiers and civilians being admitted.
Four of the latter group of admissions subsequently died in the hospital.
Dr. Peacocke and Mr. Gunn stayed in the hospital for the duration of the
fighting and Dr. John Lumsden, a former student at the hospital, brought
provisions in a Saint John Ambulance Brigade ambulance when supplies ran
34 persons were admitted, 46 were treated but not admitted and 12 deaths
occurred which were due to gunshot wounds. The scene in the neighborhood
of the hospital was described by Robert Collis, son of Mr. W. S. Collis,
a solicitor, who was a member and former chairman of the Hospital Joint
Committee. Collis wrote that
"My lather, who was just back from the Italian front, had fixed the
car up with red crosses painted on napkins and had put himself at the disposal
of the Meath Hospital some days before, and I procured a couple of Red
Cross armlets myself so as to assist him. During the afternoon I brought
in a note to the Meath Hospital about some wounded and then went down to
the hospital gate to see what was happening around. About two hundred yards
away I saw a flag flying from the tower above Jacob's Biscuit Factory.
It was waving in the breeze: a tricolor - green, white and orange. A haze
of brick dust hung in the air, caused by a stream of machine-gun bullets
that were striking the tower below it. Now I walked down the back streets
towards the factory. As I approached I found that its garrison was evacuating
it and escaping into the narrow streets around the Coombe. Some were carrying
tins of biscuits, others throwing out sacks of flour from the upper stories.
One of them came up to me with a revolver in his hand, and pointing to
the Officers Training Corps badge which I had put in my button-hole to
enable me to pass through the British lines and had forgotten to remove,
remarked 'You're just the sort of lad who gets shot if he doesn't look
out, you know.' At that moment a bag of flour landed on a girl's head,
and glad of a diversion, I carried her into the hospital."
About 130 persons were treated for gunshot wounds at Mercer's Hospital
during the rebellion. The cases were attended to by Surgeons Maunsell and
Wheeler and Dr. Christopher Francis Coyne who were ably assisted by the
nursing staff under the Matron, Miss Jordan. R. Charles Maunsell had qualified
in 1894 and had become an FRCSI in 1900.
William Ireland de Courcy Wheeler;
Wheeler was the most distinguished surgeon in Ireland of his time.
Among other posts,he was surgeon to the Household of His Excellency, the
Lord Lieutenant, Surgeon at the Dublin Hospital for Wounded Officers, Surgeon
to the Female Presbyterian Orphanage, Dublin, and Consultant Surgeon to
the Royal National Hospital for Consumption and the Royal Dublin Fusiliers
Association. The history of the hospital says that "Wheeler was mentioned
in dispatches for treating wounded soldiers under fire during the Easter
Rising. On Easter Monday, ignoring snipers, he made his way across Saint
Stephen's Green to Mercer's to attend an officer with a chest injury. Two
days later he attended a soldier at the corner of Dawson street in the
small hours. He also administered to two officers of the Sherwood Foresters
who were wounded in Fitzwilliam Street."
Holles Street City Hospital for Diseases of the Skin and Cancer,
At their May meeting, the managing committee of The City Hospital for
Diseases of the Skin and Cancer, Holles Street, proposed that their deep
sense of appreciation of the valor and unflagging devotion to duty of Dr.
Christopher Michael O'Brien, the physician at the hospital, be placed on
record, Dr. O'Brien had played a fearless and humane part in the historic
battle of Mount Street Bridge and had opened this specialized hospital
for the treatment of the wounded to help cope with the unprecedented demand
for hospital accommodation elsewhere in the city. The Committee also expressed
their obligations to Messrs. Boland Ltd. for their generous supplies of
bread not only for the intern patients but also for the sick and hungry
poor attending the dispensaries.
Dr. Reginald Joseph White, the Master of the National Maternity Hospital,
and the Lady Superintendent were also mentioned as they had arranged a
supply of meat, bread and butter. The thanks of the Committee were expressed
to the Secretary of the Royal Irish Automobile Club, Dawson Street, Mr.
Herbert S. Chaytor, who had made ambulances available to the hospital to
transport patients and carry bread from Messrs. Boland's Bakeries.
National Maternity Hospital, Holles Street
Early in Easter Week the National Maternity Hospital, Holles Street,
experienced difficulties obtaining food supplies for staff and patients.
The Lady Superintendent and the nursing staff managed to secure the needed
supplies at considerable personal risk because of the intensity of the
fighting. Many civilians in the district lost their lives in the same quest.
On Wednesday, after the military had secured Mount Street Bridge, the firing
around the hospital had become so heavy that it was necessary to fly the
Red Cross flag from the building.
At that time, Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital was filled to overflowing with
wounded and as it was being constantly swept with rifle fire it was found
necessary to throw open the Maternity Hospital for the treatment of casualties.
The Master, assisted by members of the medical staff and some civilians
from the neighborhood. responded to the many calls for help and carried
the wounded back for treatment at the hospital. In all some 40 bullet wounds
of a 'shocking nature' were treated at the Hospital and 12 of these proved
fatal. After the surrender, most of the cases were removed to St. Vincent's
Hospital by Royal Irish Automobile Club ambulances which also carried bread
from Boland's Bakery to the hospital.
Royal City of Dublin Hospital, Baggot Street
The Board of Directors of the Royal City of Dublin Hospital, Baggot
Street, at their meeting which was held on May 12, 1916, paid tribute to
exceptional services rendered by the Lady Superintendent, the nursing sisters,
the day and night nurses, the temporary probationers as well as by the
medical staff and students. Appreciation of the efforts of the many friends
who came forward with gifts of food, bedding and dressings and with offers
of help was expressed by the Board. Upwards of 200 casualties were treated
during the week.
The history of the hospital reads:
"During the rebellion of 1916 casualties flooded to the hospital
and over 200 individuals were treated. The first cases were brought to
the hospital on Easter Monday. The hospital came under direct fire during
the conflict and a considerable quantity of glass was broken particularly
in the operating theatre but nobody was injured. A constant stream of wounded
soldiers, civilians and rebels was brought to the hospital and they were
cared for by the nurses under the leadership of the matron, Miss E. A.
Eddison. Fourteen of those brought into the hospital were dead on admission
and another sixteen died from the wounds which they had received. The doctors
worked day and night and food, dressings and other supplies were delivered
to the hospital by friends at great personal risk.
The medical staff of the hospital were helped by a number of doctors
who volunteered their assistance including Adams A. McConnell, who later
became Regius Professor of Surgery at Trinity and a pioneering neurosurgeon
at the Richmond Hospital. During the fighting the staff became aware of
two wounded soldiers signaling for help. The soldiers were trapped on top
of the church tower in nearby Haddington Road. Two resident students managed
to reach the soldiers at great personal risk but it was several hours before
they were able to carry them back to the hospital for treatment as the
belfry of the church came under heavy fire."
Royal Victoria Eye and Ear Hospital
The Matron of the Royal Victoria Eye and Ear Hospital reported, in
early May, to the Council of the Hospital that "On Tuesday, April 25th,
at 6 a.m., a soldier came in having been shot through the legs at Leeson
Street. On Thursday, April 27th, there were thirty empty beds here, and
hearing that the Royal City of Dublin Hospital was overcrowded I told Dr.
Stoney that we could take some patients. Forty-two soldiers were immediately
sent over, 13 were convalescent, and the remainder Sherwood Foresters,
who had come in the night before, some only suffering from shock, but three
or four with fairly serious wounds. Three more soldiers came here direct,
making a total of 46 soldiers.
The total number of patients in Hospital on this day was 116. On May
5th, we were asked to take seven civilians who were injured during the
riots and treated at 40 Merrion Square, as that temporary hospital was
being closed. Very great difficulty was experienced for several days in
getting sufficient food. Milk and meat came regularly but it was impossible
to get sugar or butter and for two days the bread van failed to come, However
by sending a message to the Castle we were able to get enough. The diet
was considerably restricted for five or six days. ... The neighbors kindly
lent beds and offered sleeping accommodation for any soldiers who were
able to be up and about. Several shots were fired into the sanitary block
at the east end of the Hospital and one into the outpatient department
but no one was injured.
Fifteen of the soldiers were discharged on May 10, sixteen were transferred
to King George V Hospital on May 13 and 12 more we expect to send away
this week. There was a great deal of shooting and sniping all around this
locality almost all the time which made it most dangerous for anyone approaching
or leaving the Hospital". Dr. Richard Atkinson Stoney, who was a surgeon
at the Royal City of Dublin Hospital, had qualified in 1901 and had become
an FRCSI in 1906.
Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital
The report for Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital indicated that "It was on
Wednesday evening following Easter Monday that the Sherwood Foresters marched
towards Dublin into the death trap which awaited them in the neighborhood
of Northumberland Road. Into the inferno the Lady Superintendent and Nurses
of Sir Patrick Dun's Nursing Home bravely stepped forth at about four in
the afternoon. They were the first on the scene and used quilts as stretchers.
"The Resident Medical Staff were also gallantly engaged in this rescue
work and between them they carried 79 wounded men, including soldiers and
rebels into the Home. Some idea of the strenuous duty may be gathered from
the fact that the time occupied was from four in the afternoon to midnight.
Three clergymen also helped to carry the wounded under fire, these being
Rev. Fr. MacNevin, Rev. Fr. McCann and Rev. Mr. Hall of Dalkey. Into the
fire likewise entered Miss Huxley, the distinguished Lady Superintendent
of Elpis (Nursing Home), which is situated almost opposite to the Nursing
Home, and some of her assistants." Sir Patrick Dun's Nursing Home was situated
at the rear of the hospital on Lower Mount Street close to Mount Street
Dr. Stevens' Hospital
The report for Dr. Stevens' Hospital reads
"Over one hundred cases were treated during the week of disturbance
and the medical staff and nursing staff (under the superintendence of Miss
Phillips) were constantly on duty during that very trying time."
Coombe Lying In Hospital
In the case of the Coombe Lying In Hospital the staff were involved
in providing shelter and food for women and children who had sought refuge
From the fighting in the hospital as well as treating over thirty cases
of gunshot wounds as inpatients, The Matron and Rev. Fr. Peter Monahan
of Francis St. Presbytery were singled out for special praise for their
efforts in securing food for the poor of the area.
Jervis Street Hospital
Because of its location, the staff of Jervis Street Hospital were on
duty for the duration of the Rising. The first cases to be brought in on
Easter Monday were four dead soldiers and a woman who had been shot dead
near her home in Capel Street. Between 600 and 700 cases were dealt with
in that period and except for those who had injured themselves when looting
the remainder suffered from bullet wounds.
The City Coroner, Dr Louis Byrne, was in attendance for the duration
and on one night, accompanied by a hospital porter named James Dooley and
an unnamed civilian, rescued a badly wounded soldier. Dr. Byrne, who was
a surgeon at Jervis Street and a medical examiner of Saint John Ambulance
Brigade, had become an FRCSI in 1889. The history of the hospital records
that "During the Easter Rebellion house surgeons, Doctors Frank Power,
Tim Murphy and Corny McGill converted a grocer's van into an ambulance
and wearing short white coats bearing a red cross administered first aid
in O'Connell Street and brought casualties to the hospital."
The history also records the treatment of wounded Lancers who were ambushed
near the GPO on Easter Monday and tells of the efforts of the nursing staff
to protect the identity of wounded insurgents when the Army was searching
the hospitals for them. Ambulant insurgents were disguised as ward maids
and female cleaners while some of the seriously wounded were kept in a
ward which was reserved for the religious sisters. The nurses destroyed
their uniforms, hats and boots to complete the disguise.
The report of the Mater Hospital simply reads "The Mater Hospital,
under the care of the Sisters of Mercy, being in the center of an area
where some very keen fighting took place, was called upon to deal with
a very heavy casualty list. The medical and nursing staff worked energetically
both day and night, and spared no efforts to relieve the sufferings of
The National Children's Hospital
The Matron of The National Children's Hospital, Miss Geraldine Matthews,
went out into Harcourt Street to assist a wounded man despite heavy fire
from soldiers stationed at Harcourt Street Railway Station at a rebel who
was trying to escape down the street on a bicycle. Assisted by Mr. Richard
Lane Joynt she conveyed the patient on a stretcher to the private hospital
which is attached to the Children's Hospital and afterwards brought in
two women who had been shot at the same time. Several other serious cases
suffering from bullet wounds received in the vicinity of the hospital were
admitted for treatment. Mr. Joynt, an FRCSI from 1894, was surgeon at the
Meath Hospital and at the County Dublin Infirmary and lived at 84 Harcourt
St. Vincent's Hospital
The first victims of the rebellion who were admitted to St. Vincent's
Hospital were brought in between 12 and 1 o'clock on Easter Monday. They
were two civilians and both were dead. About 45 persons were dealt with
altogether, nine of whom were either dead on admission or died soon after
admission. The Hospital was struck once or twice by bullets one of which
passed through the window of the Mother Superior's room, but no staff member
was injured. Several members of the medical staff, at great personal risk,
went out with stretchers and brought in cases from Saint Stephen's Green
There was no difficulty in getting supplies of food, and on one day,
Dr. John Marshall Day, Medical Superintendent at Cork Street Fever Hospital,
brought a supply of bread to the hospital and succeeded in bringing supplies
to several other places as well. The recently published history of St.
Vincent's Hospital refers to the fact that "Between the end of April and
the middle of May 1916 eighteen women were admitted to the hospital suffering
from either gunshot or bullet wounds. The youngest patient was aged 12;
two died. During the conflict the authorities of the hospital like the
other voluntary hospitals in the city ignored a demand by the British forces
to report cases of gunshot wounds and other suspicious injuries admitted
to the wards."
King George V Military Hospital
There is no information available in relation to the King George V
Military Hospital. A brief sentence in the chronicle referred to previously
said " King George's Military Hospital, about one hundred cases" while
Dr. James Ryan wrote that after leaving the General Post Office "We laid
our wounded on the footpath in Moore Street for the evening. They numbered
about eighteen in all. We mingled the strong with the weak so that they
might help each other." Readers interested in surgery may be amazed to
learn that they all made a speedy recovery in George V Hospital, now St.
Richmond Barracks or Portobello Barracks
In like manner, there is no information relating to the treatment of
casualties in the military hospitals at Richmond Barracks or Portobello
In an article entitled Inside Trinity College which was published
in Blackwood's Magazine in July 1916 the following paragraph is found "Casualties
began to come in. No. 15, a house in the College quadrangle known as Botany
Bay and near the Brunswick Street gate, had been fitted up as an emergency
hospital. It proved to be of the greatest value, not only for dealing with
wounds, but for administering to the ailments of the soldiers within. The
treatment of sore feet, for instance, was continually proceeding. A staff
of Red Cross Volunteers and members of the RAMC were available day and
Dublin Castle Red Cross Hospital
In the case of the Dublin Castle Red Cross Hospital there were 67 wounded
soldiers present on Easter Monday. One hundred and eighteen wounded soldiers
were brought in as well as thirty four wounded members of the 'Sinn Féin
party'. Twenty civilians and two police constables received the attention
of the medical and nursing staff. Thirty six deaths occurred. All of these
and about thirty others, who were brought from other hospitals, were interred
in the garden at the rear of the Castle, but some of them were subsequently
transferred elsewhere for reburial.
Dublin University VAD Hospital
The hospital was situated at 19 Mountjoy Square,as under the charge
of Sister Gertrude Wood. On Easter Monday, she opened the hospital, assisted
by a Miss Hannan and a St. John Ambulance dresser, Mr. Arthur Bacon. The
military authorities sent a surgeon, Captain Friar, RAMC, to provide medical
care. The small staff did excellent work with no outside help reaching
them during Easter Week. The hospital premises were attacked by rebels
from adjacent houses during the early part of the 'disturbance'.
Saint Patrick's Hospital
The history of the Saint Patrick's Hospital reproduces a report which
Dr. Richard Leeper, FRCSI, Medical Superintendent, wrote to the Board of
Governors which ran:
"Owing to the Rebellion no meeting of the Governors has occurred
since I last reported to your board on April 1st, Since then the following
patients have been admitted - Mrs. Gibson, Miss Briscoe, Band Sergeant
Keogh and Miss O'Donovan, The illness of both these last mentioned cases
was produced by the shock and terror caused by the insurrection and [both]
were admitted during the height of the Rebellion. The Army ambulance which
conveyed Mr. Keogh to the Hospital was fired on whilst conveying the patient
to the Hospital. Three patients died all from natural causes. Owing to
the disturbances it was exceedingly difficult to bury the remains and in
the case of Rev H. (?) King-Finley I had to place the coffin for some days
in the garden before I could with the valuable help of Mr. Irwin (governor
and chaplain) have him interred in the parish graveyard. Mr. Irwin attended
repeatedly at the Hospital during the Rebellion at considerable risk to
On my arrival here from Lucan on Easter Monday, firing commenced
all round the district and continued more or less constantly for 10 days.
At many times the rattle of machine gun fire was often continuous for hours
and the bullets came into the wards in several places. The greatest danger
was caused to the lunatics by the firing of the soldiers at the Kingsbridge,
Bullets entered the New Wing and raked the top ward on the ladies side.
When this began I personally placed barricades and padding material such
as mattresses in the windows. It seems wonderful that none of the patients
or nurses were killed as the fire lasted for several hours. A guard of
40 soldiers were at the front gate and I and my wife fed these men as well
as we could during the Rebellion.
My great anxiety at first was that the Hospital would be occupied
by the Rebels as was the Union and if this had been attempted, I would
have much wished for your Board's direction as to whether it were best
to resist or allow the Rebels to occupy the Hospital. It has been a most
trying experience for us all and I cannot but report upon the admirable
calmness and attention to their duties which characterized the conduct
of the nurses during the period as (sic) they came under fire and their
help in preventing the patients from becoming alarmed and panic stricken
and the discipline of the Hospital disturbed."
His report continued: "I desire to draw your attention to the conduct
of your man (John) Tully (a van man) and also to that of John Lane. These
men throughout the Rebellion at great personal risk brought into us the
milk from (the hospital farm at) Lucan, and sheep and lambs, which I had
killed. I would suggest that some honorarium be given them in recognition
of their conduct, which was largely responsible for our suffering no hunger,
and for the patients being properly fed through the insurrection."
The Board awarded Tully and Lane £2 each at the June Meeting.
Band Sergeant Keogh who was diagnosed as suffering from acute mania with
homicidal and suicidal tendencies was subsequently discharged into his
Table 3 Military and Civilian Casualties
|Dublin Metropolitan Police
|Civilians and Insurgents
of which IV and ICA
Note: There is no separate tabulation of wounded Irish
Volunteer Irish Citizen Army members.
Saint John Ambulance Brigade
Mr. William G. Smith:
In a report of work done during the Sinn Féin rebellion, Mr.
William G. Smith, District Superintendent, Number 12 (Irish) District,
St. John Ambulance Brigade wrote that the first steps to organize first
aid work were taken by the late Corps Superintendent, Holden Stodart. He
contacted the military authorities offering help which was not required
at that time, Easter Monday. On Tuesday, the military asked the Brigade
for volunteers to act as orderlies with the RAMC at Portobello Military
Barracks and at the Dublin Castle Red Cross Hospital. An ambulance patrol
was stationed at Harcourt Street Railway Station on that day. On Wednesday
a large number of officers and men of the Brigade as well as members of
the public who possessed First Aid Certificates reported to Dr. John Lumsden,
the Deputy Commissioner, at the Brigade Depot, 51 Dawson Street.
These were allocated to the military hospitals and to the City of Dublin
Hospital, Baggot Street, where a room was placed at the disposal of the
Brigade members. It was from there that Brigade members rendered help to
the Sherwood Foresters who were ambushed on their way from Kingstown to
the city. Corps Superintendent Holden Stodart was killed near Mount Street
Bridge while going with a stretcher party to the aid of a wounded soldier.
An employee of Messrs. Arthur Guinness, Son and Company, he was from Blackrock
and had been educated at High School. He had been awarded the Coronation
Silver Medal for his work with the Brigade since the outbreak of war.
He was survived by his wife and one child. While medals and certificates
were awarded for meritorious service by the Brigade there was no provision
for the award of posthumous honors so his bravery could not be formally
acknowledged by the Brigade. The War Office decided to place officers and
men of the Red Cross and St. John Ambulance Brigade in the same position
with regard to pensions and compassionate allowances as the holders of
equivalent ranks in the Army. This meant that the Stodart family were awarded
the pension and allowance of a Lieutenant who had been killed in action.
Holden Stodart is buried at Mount Jerome Cemetery. The inscription on his
grave reads "In loving memory of my devoted husband Holden Stodart Corps
Superintendent Saint John Ambulance Brigade who lost his life on duty during
the rebellion April 26 1916 aged 33 years".
Dr. John Lumsden:
Deputy Commissioner, Number 12 (Irish) District was the most eminent
physician in Dublin at that time. He had obtained a BA from Trinity College,
Dublin in 1891, an MB, BCh, BAO in 1894 and an MD in 1895. He was Senior
Physician at Mercer's Hospital, a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Medicine
in Ireland, Chief Medical Officer to Guinness Brewery, Consultant Medical
Adviser to the Commissioners of Irish Lights, Medical Officer at Iveagh
House, Director of the City of Dublin Nursing Institute, Medical Referee
to the Royal Assurance Company and was a Knight of Grace of the Order of
Saint John of Jerusalem.
An eyewitness wrote after the Rising that "The conduct of Dr. Lumsden
was simply magnificent. He coolly and calmly knelt in the middle of the
road attending to the wounded soldiers while bullets were flying from the
houses on both sides. He helped the men into the ambulance wagons himself,
sent them off and waited until they returned, and during all the time he
was under a heavy crossfire."
For operational purposes, the Brigade had divided the area within the
city boundaries into three zones, on the north side the zone ran from the
Custom House to Kingsbridge Station, on the south side a zone ran from
Kingsbridge Station eastwards to Dublin Castle and the final zone was from
there to Ringsend. Members of the Brigade performed duty in every area
where fighting took place providing first aid, collecting wounded and bringing
them by foot or ambulance to hospital. Both men and women were involved
in this dangerous work.
Members of the Brigade also acted as ambulance orderlies on the motor
ambulances which were provided by the Royal Irish Automobile Club. The
vehicles were allocated to the RAMC and, under the direction of Deputy
Commissioner Lumsden, to civilian ambulance service duties. The Club sent
out a total of 15 ambulances of which two were cars belonging to the Club
itself, the others being loaned with chauffeurs by private car owners.
The following account of an ambulance run from Dublin Castle to the
Church Street area is given in the report of work done by the Brigade:
"Captain (Herbert Vernon) Stanley (RAMC, who had graduated from TCD
in 1908 ) asked us at 9.20 on Saturday evening would we go to Church Street
and take in two badly wounded soldiers. It was, he said, hazardous, and
(as we knew that he was up to his eyes in work) he could not accompany
us, as Lieutenant (Charles ) Allen (Indian Army Medical Service ) was away
on the other ambulance. When the squad was asked they said nothing, our
driver simply cranked up, someone reported 'all aboard' and without another
word we were off. When we reached the military barricade in North King
Street we were told we could go no further with the ambulance as it was
most unsafe, the outlying enemy not yet having received any news of the
surrender of their leaders. We left the ambulance and put our stretchers
in the armoured motor car, and proceeded, as it seemed to us after our
fast ambulance, at a snail's pace to Church Street and stopped outside
a public house where 'four ways met'. The armoured car turned to interpose
its bulk, as far as possible, between the snipers and ourselves, and we
opened the door, threw out the stretchers, and, acting on instructions,
jumped out ourselves, lay down on the street and crawled, dragging the
stretchers after us, into the house. The shop was small, a wooden counter
in front, no plate glass windows, six or seven soldiers (two,dead), two
RAMC men, five of our squad, and the sergeant in charge of the soldiers
all lying down, One of us lifted his head to see where the wounded lay,
and was told more forcibly than politely to keep his head down unless we
had a spare stretcher.
"It was not easy, in any case, to load a man on to a stretcher, but
lying down yourself in the dark and under fire does not make matters more
easy. However, we got the men on the stretcher and loaded into the armoured
car safely. Two bearers had very narrow escapes, bullets passing through
their clothing; one stretcher handle had a splinter knocked out of the
extreme end. Two stretchers loaded take up a great deal of room, and having
seen all safely away our Superintendent had to remain behind, the armoured
car promising to return later on and take him and the soldiers away. The
snipers were very busy when the armoured car went off several bullets striking
the floor a short distance from the bulkhead behind which the soldiers
Dr. Ella Webb:
In her report on the work of the Nursing Divisions, the Lady Superintendent,
Dr. Ella Webb, said that the principal work undertaken was the transformation
of the War Hospital Supply Depot, 40 Merrion Square, into a temporary hospital.
This task was completed in three hours, starting at 2 p.m. when the first
of the members reported for duty. By 5 p.m. an amputation was going on
in the improvised operating theatre and about half of the thirty beds being
occupied. A very considerable amount of hard physical labor was involved
in this task as beds, bedding and household utensils were collected from
households in the Merrion Square area for use in the hospital. Food and
other provisions were obtained from a nearby grocery shop.
The Hospital was staffed by five medical officers, two house surgeons,
two lady superintendents and eleven nursing sisters and trained nurses.
The total number of beds reached 40 when the conversion was complete but
not all were occupied at any time as "milder" cases were sent to the auxiliary
hospitals which had been prepared by other Divisions. Of the cases treated
only one died, an old man of 80, the others all recovering including two
very serious lung cases, two amputations as well as many other minor operations.
The Deputy Head of the depot, Mrs. Hignett, with the canteen and kitchen
staff were singled out for special praise as there was a plentiful supply
of "particularly nice" food for both patients and staff at a time when
provisions of any sort were most difficult to obtain. Members of the College
of Science Nursing Division rendered excellent service by bringing sphagnum
dressings to the hospital.
Dr. Ella Webb who had been awarded a BA in 1899 qualified as a doctor
in 1904 with the award of MB, BCh, BAO from the Royal University of Ireland
and obtained her MD in 1906. She was Lady District Superintendent, Number
12 (Irish ) District, Saint John Ambulance Brigade, Lecturer at the Dublin
Metropolitan Technical School for Nurses, Visiting Physician to the Female
Penitentiary, a Physiology Demonstrator at the Cecilia Street Medical School,
an Assistant Anatomy Demonstrator at the Women's Department, Medical School,
TCD, and a member of the Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland. During the
rebellion she cycled through the firing lines to visit hospitals and aid
When it was thought that the insurrection would last for some considerable
time and that the insurgents would have large numbers of wounded requiring
medical attention several auxiliary hospitals were equipped by other Divisions.
These were The Litton Hall, Leeson Park, which was staffed by the Leeson
Park Division and The High School, Harcourt Street, which was staffed by
members of the Dundrum and Harcourt Street Divisions. This latter hospital
was greatly assisted by a band of ladies at Dundrum who organized an all-day
working party to provide dressings and set up a food supply depot. Large
quantities of both food and dressings were provided and at the time of
the evacuation of the hospital at the end of the rebellion these supplies
were sent to Mercer's Hospital. The members who were attached to the Merrion
Square Supply Depot worked at providing meals for soldiers, and making
dressings and shirts when that building reverted to its original use.
In addition, three private homes were readied for use as auxiliary
hospitals but these were not used. Other duties undertaken by the Divisions
or individual members were the housing of refugee women and children, helping
at RAMC dressing stations, carrying bales of dressings on stretchers (often
through the firing line) to the general hospitals which required them,
feeding the poor and rendering first aid to civilians. A number of members
were transferred to the Dublin City Branch of the British Red Cross Society
and were involved in washing and sterilization of bedding and dressings
from the Dublin Castle Hospital. One member treated in her own home a soldier
who was suffering from heat or sun stroke and when able to so do brought
him to Baggot Street Hospital. Others provided food and tea for the soldiers
who were in their neighborhoods.
The Divisions and members who lived in the Kingstown and Blackrock
areas looked after the needs of the large numbers of troops who were arriving
from England. This included the provision of beds, food and, in some cases,
clothing. The auxiliary hospital at Monkstown dealt with a large number
of casualties. The country Divisions mobilized and placed themselves at
the disposal of the military or RIC. The Sligo Division undertook to provide
all the soldiers drafted into that district with socks, as the men had
been dispatched very hurriedly from England and had few comforts.
British Red Cross Society
Mrs. Constance Heppell-Marr:
Assistant County Director, City of Dublin Branch, British Red Cross
Society, allocated members of the Voluntary Aid Detachments to nursing,
food preparation, stretcher. bearing and sterilization duties and supervised
the setting up of two auxiliary hospitals at 29 Lower Fitzwilliam Street
and at 32 Fitzwilliam Square. The former, which was the headquarters of
the Dublin City Branch, had facilities for 50 patients while the latter,
the residence of a Miss Meade, had 25 beds. In both cases food and bedding
were donated by the public, any surplus food being sent to the main hospitals.
A Mrs. Eadie put her house at Ballsbridge at the disposal of the military
during the time that they were stationed there. She provided meals and
sleeping accommodation for Red Cross men who were on duty and helped some
of the wounded members of the Irish Association Volunteer Training Corps.
The latter were the "Gorgeous Wrecks" who had been ambushed on Easter Monday
when returning to Beggars Bush Barracks
from a route march.
Mrs. Crawfurth Smith:
Commandant, Number 2 Detachment, converted her Ailesbury Park residence
into an Emergency Hospital with thirty beds which were occupied by wounded
soldiers. The members of the Blackrock Branch of the War Hospital Supply
Depot and Mrs. J. Snowden, St. Andrew's Sewing Club, supplied bandages,
dressings and night shirts.
Dr. Reginald Christopher Peacocke:
Who was the Assistant County Director of the County Dublin Branch of
the British Red Cross Society, had qualified in 1895 was Medical Officer
to the Post Office and Honorary Physician to the Meath Protestant Industrial
School. Two sisters, Misses J. and R. Fitzpatrick, members of the Number
2 Detachment, were singled out for special praise by Dr. Peacocke for their
efforts in the Mount Street area and for subsequently dressing the wounds
of Sinn Fein prisoners who were held in Richmond Barracks. Mr. Henry Olds
was commended for his bravery in bringing a wounded man to safety. after
rendering first aid to him on O'Connell Bridge despite being wounded himself.
The Pharmacist to the Society, Mr. Kennedy, manned a dressing station which
had been established by the RAMC at Dorset Street.
The Dublin County Branch was involved in welfare work in Kingstown at
the Corrig Castle Hospital where servicemen and women were provided with
food and lodgings. Some wounded were treated there and civilian refugees
were accommodated at that hospital. The Red Cross Work Guild, Kingstown
supplied 108 pairs of socks and a dozen shirts to the troops as well as
bedding and overcoats. In Balbriggan the Commandant of the Ladies VAD,
Miss Warren, secured the use of the Technical School as a Canteen which
provided hot meals for the troops.
On two occasions in his dispatch to Lord French, Field Marshal Commanding
in Chief, The Home Forces, General J. G. Maxwell, Commanding in Chief the
Forces in Ireland, refers to deliberate firing on nurses, Red Cross, St.
John Ambulance and RAMC personnel as well as firing on ambulances and Fire
Brigade units. This evoked a spirited response from Dr. Christopher Michael
O'Brien who was at Mount Street Bridge. He wrote in the Irish Independent
in July that no doctor, ambulance attendant or nurse was fired at or injured
and that "the uplifted arm, whether clad in the doctors' surgical coat
or white sheet was the signal for cessation of hostilities.". Mr. J. Crampton
Walker wrote in May 26th issue of Irish Life that "The Sinn Feiners were
continually accused of firing upon the Red Cross and the RAMC men - as
indeed are the Germans but it would be very hard to get a better example
of the impossibility of distinguishing these from combatants than was afforded
at Mount Street Bridge where some of them fell. If looking from fifty yards
it is almost impossible to make out the ridiculously small circular badge
on the arm, one can imagine the chances of the RAMC in trench warfare,.."
Colonel Sir James Clark, Bart., CB, CMG
On May 2, the Chief Commissioner, Saint John Ambulance Brigade, Col.
Sir James Clark, Bart., CB, CMG wrote to Dr. Lumsden "I write to congratulate
you and the ambulance and nursing divisions and officers of your District
on the very brilliant work which I am informed you and they carried out
during the late Irish rising. It is one more instance of courage and devotion
to duty added to the annals of the Brigade." Further letters of congratulation
were sent to Dr. Lumsden by Sir Alfred Keogh, Director - General, Army
Medical Service, Whitehall, Colonel 0. R. A. Julian, Deputy Director of
Medical Services, Irish Command, Colonel E. W. MacConchy, Brigade Commander,
178th ( Sherwood Foresters ) Brigade, Major J. A. Black, RAMC, Portobello
Barracks Hospital, the Board of the Royal City of Dublin Hospital, Baggot
Street, the Benchers of the King's Inns and the 1st (Dublin) Company, Association
of Volunteer Training Corps, the "Gorgeous Wrecks",
Capt. John Charles McWalter, RAMC:
The following is an extract from a report by Captain John Charles McWalter,
RAMC "The St. John ambulance detachment exhibited considerable bravery,
as they were required to pick up sick and wounded in the area between Marrowbone
Lane and the Canal Bank, which was altogether occupied by the enemy forces.
Their bravery struck me very much, for they were business men with families,
who were required to proceed on foot through a rebel district, some in
khaki uniform, and out of sight as well of protection from our soldiery.
The district was so denuded of troops that they might all have been
shot without any of our people knowing about it. In face of this danger
they had to carry wounded and dead for half a mile to a mile before the
ambulance wagon was reached and not one man exhibited hesitation or a desire
to escape attack which, under the conditions he might well have refused
Dr McWalter who had qualified as a doctor in 1897 had also qualified as
a barrister at the King Inns in 1907.
Officers Training Corps
A review of members of the Officers Training Corps of Dublin University
and of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, members of the Irish Association
of Volunteer Training Corps and of both the St. John Ambulance and British
Red Cross Voluntary Aid Detachments took place on the 6th of May in the
park of Trinity College. The Prime Minister, Mr. Asquith, and Lady Wimborne,
the wife of the Viceroy, were in attendance as distinguished visitors.
The salute at the march past of the various units was taken by General
Maxwell. Voluntary Aid Detachments which were represented were from the
Four Courts, the Land Commission, the Royal College of Science, RIC Rathmines,
City of Dublin, Howth, Pembroke, Kingstown, Carrickmines, Glenageary, the
Dublin Building Trades, Guinness Brewery, Jacob's Biscuit Factory and Powers
Distillery. Indian students from the King's Inns, who had performed ambulance
work, paraded with the Rathmines unit.
General J. G. Maxwell
A letter was issued by General J. G. Maxwell from Headquarters, Irish
Command, at Parkgate, Dublin, on 7th May 1916 which read
"I desire to express my sincere appreciation of the services rendered
during the recent disturbances in Dublin by the medical, surgical and nursing
staffs of many of the city hospitals, and in particular of the gallantry
shown by those nurses who exposed themselves to heavy fire in attending
to and removing the wounded. Also to the members of the Red Cross and St.
John Ambulance Societies, and the many medical men and private individuals
who gave assistance in attending to the wounded or placed their houses
at the disposal of the military for use as dressing stations. In numerous
instances these services were rendered at considerable personal risk and
under circumstances reflecting the greatest credit on those engaged in
On May 27, in the Royal Barracks, Gen. Maxwell inspected some of the
units of the Royal Irish Automobile Club Ambulance Service, the Dublin
Corporation ambulance and two motor ambulances of the Pembroke Urban Council
which had seen service during the insurrection. Some of the vehicles bore
bullet marks on their coachwork or holes in their canopies. One of the
drivers, Martin Redmond, who had been wounded, was singled out for special
mention by the General who expressed his grateful thanks to the ambulance
The General Officer Commanding the Dublin area, Gen. Sandbach, inspected
members of the Kingstown and District Volunteer Corps, along with the local
corps of Boy Scouts and Girl Guides and three senior members of the St.
John Ambulance Association on 9th May in the grounds of the Marine Hotel,
Capt. J. C. Bowen-Colthurst:
On June 6, the court-martial of Captain J. C. Bowen-Colthurst, Royal
Irish Rifles, took place at Richmond Barracks, with Major-General H. F.
Lord Cheylesmore presiding. Bowen-Colthurst was charged with the murders
of Francis Sheehy-Skeffington, Thomas Dickinson and Patrick Maclntyre on
April 26 at Portobello Barracks.
Capt. James McTurk, RAMC:
Medical evidence for the defense was provided by Capt. James McTurk,
RAMC, who had known the defendant while both were serving at Portobello
Barracks. He considered that Bowen-Colhurst was "not capable of exercising
any sound judgment or discriminating between right and wrong."
Dr. Alfred Robert Parsons, FRCPI
A Physician at the Royal City of Dublin Hospital, gave evidence of
his medical examination of Bowen-Colthurst when he had returned from France
in November, 1914, on medical leave. In addition to a wound in the arm
he was in "condition of marked nervous exhaustion" being "unequal to
any strain, which would have brought about a nervous breakdown probably
affecting him mentally."
Dr. Parsons had met the defendant immediately prior to the sitting of
the court and formed the opinion that "his condition was far from normal
and that he was unbalanced. I felt that a very trivial incident at the
time would absolutely upset his balance."
Dr. Richard Robert Leeper:
Further evidence of mental instability was given to the court by Dr.
Richard Robert Leeper, FRCSI, Medical Superintendent, St. Patrick's Hospital
and by Captain George Lawless, Medical Superintendent, Armagh District
The court found Bowen-Colthurst guilty of the murder of Sheehy-Skeffington
and of Maclntyre but that he was insane at the time that he committed the
acts. He was sentenced to be detained in a criminal lunatic asylum during
His Majesty's pleasure.
City Coroner, Dr. Louis A. Byrne,
At the Quarterly Meeting of the Municipal Council of the City of Dublin,
which was held on 3rd July, a letter from the City Coroner, Dr. Louis A.
Byrne, to the Lord Mayor, James Michael Gallagher, was read. It said
"Now that the. excitement of the Insurrection has passed, I deem
it my duty to bring to your notice the very great service rendered by the
members of the City Fire Brigade, who worked with the Ambulances during
that trying time. To my personal knowledge, these gallant fellows worked
night and day, and several times under fire, bringing in wounded (Sinn
Feiners, Military and Civilians), among the latter being women and children,
and by their care and training saved many a valuable life".
Lord Mayor, James Michael Gallagher
The Lord Mayor wrote in reply:
"I quite agree with every word you mention with reference to the
historic work done by our Fire Brigade and Ambulance men during the trying
time of Easter week. I was present on several occasions myself and saw
them at work, and only for the great sacrifice they made ( running grave
risks themselves) one of our largest Hospitals may have been destroyed
by fire, and too much praise cannot be given to the Ambulance men who did
more than their share bringing in the wounded." The hospital referred to
in the reply of the Lord Mayor was Jervis Street of which incident Captain
Thomas P. Purcell, commander of the Dublin Fire Brigade, wrote "I received
what I call the culminating call of the many from the doctors and clergymen
in Jervis Street Hospital. That was at 8pm on Saturday.
"I was informed that the fires were spreading closely in the direction
of the hospital, that sparks were raining on the glass roof of their verandah,
and they said that if I could not do something to stop the fire's course
then I must make immediate arrangements for the removal of the patients.
To the firemen's credit, they one and all declared that they would save
the hospital, even under the bullets. We immediately hurried our available
force out, recovered our engines and other apparatus from O'Connell Bridge,
and started on for the big fight. I also called for the assistance of any
available men and apparatus from Messrs. Power's Distillery and Guinness's
"Both sections kindly responded to the appeal and sent men and means
which I ordered to work at various points. We fought all Saturday night,
stopping the fire where it was possible to stop it and saved the hospital.
... By 7 o clock on Sunday morning we had the conflagration, as we may
call it, completely under control. But since we have had to deal by detachments
with other outbreaks or dangerous re-kindlings over the whole area."
Capt. Purcell, commander of the Dublin Fire Brigade:
Purcell estimated that the value of the buildings and stock which had
been destroyed by fire during Easter Week amounted to £2.5 million.
The number of buildings involved in the fires was over 200 with the greatest
damage being concentrated on Sackville Street, Henry Street, Lower and
Middle Abbey Streets, Earl Street and Eden Quay. While no member of the
Brigade was killed during the week the appliances were fired on during
Friday when working in Lower Abbey Street.
He wrote that "We were making excellent progress towards stopping the
fire on both sides of Abbey Street when the bullets began to fly among
us. We were being deliberately fired at. I had two men up on fire escapes
and the bullets struck their ladders. Our engines were shot at from the
directions of Westmoreland Street and Aston's Quay. Bullets hit the engines
going through the mudguards and through the tires. I instantly called the
men off to take cover. I abandoned the engines and hose on the streets
and rushed the men in batches in motor ambulances home to their stations."
Captain Purcell was awarded the bronze medal of the British Fire Prevention
Committee in recognition of the services of the Brigade during the Rising.
Order of Saint John of Jerusalem
The General Chapter of the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem awarded
silver and bronze medals and certificates of honor for meritorious duty
by members of the Order, the British Red Cross Society, hospital staff
and unattached members of the public during the Easter Rising. The numbers
participating and the distribution of awards is given in Table 4. The award
of silver medals for ambulance work in Ireland was unique, the occasion
of the rebellion being the first on record for the conferring of such distinctions.
The recipients of the silver medal were Doctor Ella Webb, Doctor John Lumsden,
Mrs. Constance Heppell-Marr, Mr. William 0. Smith and Mrs. Edith C. Chaytor
who was not attached to any auxiliary services. She was the wife of Mr.
Herbert S. Chaytor, Secretary, Royal Irish Automobile Club, who was awarded
a bronze medal.
In the spring of 1916, the British Government introduced two new medals
for bravery, the Military Cross, for officers, and the Military Medal,
open to men and women. The Military Medal was intended primarily for private
soldiers, but among the first recipients were two nurses, who were awarded
it for their 'bravery under fire' during the Easter Rising.
On 25th January 1917, The Irish Times published an editorial
entitled The Rebellion on the occasion of the publication of one
of the many lists of honors for services rendered in connection with the
war. The list included the names of "a considerable number of officers
and men who did conspicuously good work in the suppression of the Irish
Rebellion." The editorial concluded "The names of Miss Louisa Nolan and
Miss Florence Williams, in the list of awards of the Military Medals,"
may be a puzzle.
Table 4: Auxiliary Medical and First Aid Services Easter 1916
Awards by Order of St. John of Jerusalem
|Certificate of Honour
Note: Includes St. John Ambulance Brigade members, British
Red Cross Society members, Hospital staff, Fire Service staff and unattached
civilians, readers, but they are well and honorably known in Dublin. They
are the names of two brave women who rescued wounded soldiers under the
fire of the hottest fighting in the whole record of that hideous week."
Sinn Fein Rebellion Handbook, Easter 1916. The Irish Times,
Max Caulfield, The Easter Rebellion. Gill and MacMillan, 1995.
Report of Work done by St. John Ambulance Brigade during the Sinn Fein
Rebellion. Dublin, 1916. The Medical Directory, 1916.
Eoin O'Brien, The Charitable Infirmary, Jervis Street 1718-1987.
The Anniversary Press, 1987.
David Mitchell, A Peculiar Place, The Adelaide Hospital, Dublin
1839-1989. Blackwater, 1989.
J. B. Lyons, The Quality of Mercer's, The Story of Mercer's Hospital
1734-1991. Glendale Publishing, 1991.
J. B. Lyons, An Assembly of Irish Surgeons. The Glendale Press,
David Coakley, Baggot Street, A Short History of the Royal City
of Dublin Hospital. Criterion Press,1995.
J.D. H. Widdess, RCSI and its Medical School. (2nd Ed.) E. & S.
Livingstone, London, 1967.
Peter Gatenby, Dublin's Meath Hospital. Town House, Dublin,
Elizabeth Malcolm, Swift's Hospital. Gill and MacMillan, 1989.
An tOglac, Vol. 1, No. 12, Autumn 1966.
The Capuchin Annual 1966.
F. 0. C. Meenan, St. Vincent's Hospital, 1834-1994, Gill and
Desmond Ryan, The Rising, Golden Eagle Books, 1966.
Dr. Louis Courtney, Reminiscences of The Easter Rising, RCSI
Minutes of Quarterly Meeting of the Municipal Council of the City of
Dublin, 3 July 1916. Dublin City Archives.
The Irish Military Guide, - June 1913.
The Irish Military Guide, July - December, 1915.
Files relating to Easter Rising held at Military Archives.
The author wishes to record his grateful thanks to Ms. Mary O'Doherty,
The Mercer Library, RCSI, Tom O'Connor, Curator, Dublin Civic Museum, Brian
Siggins, Old Dublin Society, the staff of Gilbert Library, the staff of
the Dublin City Archives and the staff of Military Archives, Cathal Brugha