SUMMER 2014 / VOL. 14 ISSUE 2
Irish Medical Personnel Step to the Fore During the Rebellion

Special to The Irish American Post

The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca) was an armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week, 1916. Irish republicans had long wanted to end British rule in Ireland and break off from Great Britain and Ireland. With the start of World War I in 1914, they saw an opportunity to establish a republic. Lasting six days, the Rising began on Easter Monday, April 24 1916, before it was crushed by superior British forces.

Easter Rising
During the Rising, use was made of both artillery and armor in an urban setting, with areas of resistance being isolated and reduced by the concerted use of infantry, armor and artillery. 

Civilians who intermingled with combatants suffered both by accident and deliberately at the hands of both sides. Because of the close proximity of civilians and combatants, the medical and paramedical services of the city, in addition to the medical services of the combatants, were brought into action in a manner which had not been demanded of them before. 

Irish Volunteers 
Following the split in the at the outbreak of war, Patrick Pearse, Director of Organization, drew up an organizational plan whereby the Irish Volunteers were based on primary tactical units called companies whose members would be drawn from an area called the Company District. The company was to consist of three Officers and 100 men with an Ambulance Section of eight men. While the members of the Special Sections, such as Cycle Scouts, Transport and Supply and Ambulance, were to be trained for their respective specialized services, all members of a Company would be trained as riflemen and scouts.

Hospital Corps
At battalion level, a Hospital Corps was to consist of four men, commanded by a surgeon captain who was responsible for the hospital work of the battalion. Of course, the Irish Volunteers never reached this level of organization and, at best, some rudimentary training in first aid was provided at company level. 

In the case of the Irish Citizen Army, each member was trained in first aid by Dr. Kathleen Lynn, who had been appointed Chief Medical Officer by James Connolly. The Irish Citizen Army was unique among nationalist organizations in providing both military and medical training to all members, irrespective of gender. Lynn had been awarded an MB, BCH, BAO by the Royal University of Ireland in 1899 and had become a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (FRCS) in 1909.

Na Fiánna Eireann,
The nationalist youth movement which had been founded in 1909 by Countess Markievicz and Bulmer Hobson, undertook, as part of their training, a graded series of tests of proficiency in first aid in addition to scout training, military exercises and tuition in the Irish language and Irish history.

Cumann na mBan 
The organization was first suggested as a women's auxiliary to the Irish Volunteers by Maud Gonne MacBride in 1914. The unit was modeled on the French Red Cross which provided first aid and elementary nursing training to all young French women when they left school. 

In addition to training in first aid there was provision for training in drill, signaling and the use of small arms. One of the first moves by Cumann na mBan was to seek to affiliate to the Red Cross in Geneva and a letter written in Irish, with a French translation, was sent seeking affiliate status. 

The Red Cross authorities replied that they could not admit any country which did not have a standing army as that organization had to work with the military command. It was suggested that Cumann na mBan affiliate to the British Red Cross Society which was organized in Ireland. 

Combat Experiences
The Dublin City locations which were occupied by, and the approximate strengths of, the battalions of the Dublin Brigade, Irish Volunteers (IV) were:
Battalion Commandant Area Numbers
1st Edward Daly Four Courts, King Street, Church Street area 120
2nd Thomas MacDonagh  Jacob's Biscuit Factory, Kevin Street, Camden Street 150
3rd Eamonn De Valera Boland's Bakery, Grand Canal Street, Westland Row, Northumberland Road 130
4th Eamonn Ceannt South Dublin Union, Marrowbone Lane, James's Street, Ardee Street 150

Military Medical Services
The overall magnitude of the problem with which the Public Hospital system had to deal can be seen from Table 2 which is based on official data issued in May, 1916. The figure for deaths among the ranks of the Irish Volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army is derived from a later source There are no estimates of the numbers of wounded or missing Irish Volunteers or Irish Citizen Army men or women

Royal Army Medical Corps
Prior to the outbreak of War medical services were provided at each major Army barracks by the officers and men of the Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC). Officers, who usually held the rank of Major or Captain, provided a limited hospital service within barracks while the noncommissioned officers and men acted as orderlies and paramedics in the sick bays and barrack hospitals. 

Specialist medical and surgical services were provided by serving medical officers who held the rank of lieutenant-colonel as well as by retired Army medical officers who were in private practice and who held honorary military rank. As can be seen from the rank distribution for December 1915 in Table One above there were substantial reductions in the numbers of captains and majors by comparison with the 1913 figures while there was a doubling of the number of holders of the rank of lieutenant-colonel. 

The eight-fold increase in the number of lieutenants reflects the numbers of holders of temporary commissions for the duration of hostilities while in the case of the Military Nursing Service there is a threefold increase in the number of staff nurses. These substantial changes in the numbers of junior doctors and nurses were due to the change in the nature of the medical service provided by the Army in Ireland from a general medical service to a specialized service designed to process large numbers of wounded men and train junior doctors for service at the Front.

The three major military hospitals in Ireland were located at Cork, which had 88 beds, at the Curragh with 302 beds and at Arbour Hill, Dublin, where The King George V Military Hospital had 462 beds. These figures include 30 beds in the Families Hospital at the Curragh and a total of 30 beds in accommodation, plus:

Portobello Barracks 
Richmond Barracks
Isolation hospital - Dublin 
Isolation hospital - Curragh. 

At the military hospitals was provided by members of Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service. 

King George V Military Hospital
A RAMC Company provided patient care and an outpatient service at the. 
Richmond Barracks. A RAMC Company company also provided orderlies for the two other Dublin barrack hospitals which were at Portobello Barracks, with 71 beds and at the Richmond Barracks which had 6 beds. The officer in charge of medical faculties at Portobello Barracks was Maj. Charles Augustus John Albert Black, RAMC, a graduate of Edinburgh University, who had been Honorary Surgeon to the Viceroy in India and had served with the South Africa Field Force during the Boer War.

Dublin Castle
For the duration of hostilities in Europe the ceremonial apartments of Dublin Castle, the Throne Room, the Anteroom, the Picture Gallery and the Supper Room, were converted to hospital accommodation for the treatment of men who had been wounded in France. The nursing staff numbered about 60 with a matron and assistant matron and a large number of members of the Red Cross Voluntary Aid Detachment who were nursing auxiliaries. There was an operating theatre in this hospital and the specialist medical and surgical staff were members of the RAMC.

Table 1: Army Medical and Nursing Services Royal Army Medical Corps

December 1913
December 1915
Deputy Director Medical Services
Deputy Assistant Director
Assistant Director
Queen Alexandra's 
Imperial Military Nursing Service
Matron Sister
Staff Nurse

In addition to the Army medical service, the voluntary agencies were part of integrated health care infrastructure. A pictorial chronicle of the Easter Rising said that "voluntary aid in Dublin has, since the outbreak of the European War, been brought to a high pitch of organization and efficiency. The British Red Cross detachments and the St. John Ambulance Brigade form an enthusiastic army of voluntary nurses and stretcher-bearers ... and the scheme of motor ambulances, so highly organized by the Irish Automobile Club, ... has done (highly) successful service in the transport of wounded soldiers of war from the hospital ships".

The Headquarters and Protective Troops were located in the O'Connell Street and Henry Street Area with a strength of 170, including an estimated 20 members of the Irish National Guard.

A special force of 30 under Capt. Sean Heuston was dedicated to hold the Mendicity Institute. The Irish Citizen Army (ICA, with an estimated strength of 100, was located in the Saint Stephen's Green area under the command of Commandant Michael Mallon with a small detachment which was less than 50 in number, under Capt. Sean Connolly being involved in operations in the Dublin Castle area. The remaining members of the Irish Citizen Army joined the Irish Volunteer and Irish National Guard as part of the force occupying the O'Connell Street sector.

Urban Warefare
While the British Army had no previous experience of this type of warfare, being primarily trained to operate 'in the field' outside built-up areas, the extremely rapid response by the Army, bad mistakes by its opponents who failed to take an aggressive initiative and a large measure of luck made the final result inevitable by the end of the first day, Easter Monday. The fact that the Army was able to split Dublin City on an east-west axis running from Kingsbridge Station to Trinity College and, consequently, isolate the individual positions held by the Irish Volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army allowed them defeat their opponents in detail. 

Four Courts
Sir Thomas Myles:
When the 1st Battalion, Irish Volunteers, began occupying positions in the Four Courts area, Sir Thomas Myles approached Commandant Ned Daly and pointed out that wounded soldiers were being treated in the Richmond Hospital. Myles asked Daly not to take over the hospital or to demand use of facilities. Daly agreed and an improvised medical aid post was set up in the Father Matthew Hall on Church Street. 

Sir Thomas Myles had qualified in 1881, had become an FRCSI in 1885 and had obtained an MD in 1889. He practiced surgery at the Richmond, Jervis Street and Dr. Stevens' Hospitals and had been president of RCSI from 1900 to 1902. He was a lifelong nationalist and friend of Erskine Childers through a mutual interest in sailing. His steam-yacht, Chotah, had been used to land guns for the Irish Volunteers at Kilcoole in July, 1914. He held the rank of temporary lieutenant-colonel RAMC being involved in treating wounded soldiers at the hospitals where he practiced.

Eilis Bean UI Chonail: 
A member of Cumann na mBan, UI Chonail was sent from the GPO to the 1st Battalion on Easter Tuesday and joined 11 other women in the Father Matthew Hall. A further 12 members of Cumann na mBan were stationed in the Four Courts building. Each woman was equipped with a white armlet even if she were not qualified in first aid and was engaged in stretcher bearing duties, dressing wounds and carrying food to the men at the barricades. As the fighting intensified , it was not possible to leave the Hall to bring in the wounded many of whom were treated in the Richmond Hospital. She recollects 

"The doctors were very sympathetic. Sir Thomas Myles was in charge. When we had brought in the last of the stretcher patients he put his hand on my shoulder and I thought he was going to have me arrested. But he just asked me whether we had got any sleep during the week. I said no and he patted my shoulder, saying (that) we girls had done trojan work with the wounded. Strange to relate none of our patients were arrested although the hospital was raided for suspects. Those wounded who escaped also evaded arrest."

Capt. Eamonn Martin: 
Martin aid that some 25 wounded Irish Volunteers were under the care of Sir Thomas and the other medical staff in the Richmond Hospital. Martin had first met Myles during the landing of the guns at Kilcoole. When he (Martin) had been wounded, Myles operated on him. After the surrender, Martin was under surveillance by the police at the hospital and was expecting to be arrested when he had recovered. The medical record showed that Martin was recuperating from an operation by Sir Thomas for an abscess on the lung rather than recuperating from a gunshot wound. When he was fit to be moved Myles, dressed in his RAMC uniform, escorted Martin in his chauffeur-driven car to the Linden Convalescent Home, Blackrock. Martin wrote that 

"It was rather amusing to me to nod to the policemen as they saluted the high-ranking khaki-clad officer beside me."

Jacob's Factory
Lt. John Cahill:
In the case of the 2nd Battalion, Irish Volunteers, who had occupied the Jacob's Biscuit Factory, Lt. John Cahill, who was a chemist, acted as medical officer. 

Mr. Thomas Orr:
The factory caretaker, who had been taken prisoner when the building was first occupied, fell ill on Wednesday and demanded a doctor. His request was refused as it was felt that he was trying to escape and, in turn, he refused to accept assistance from Cahill. 

Mr. Henry Fitzgerald:
The night watchman at the factory was also held prisoner. He said that on the same night as Orr had complained, "I took ill myself and asked for some medical aid which was not granted. The chemist later brought me some purging medicine but this I was afraid to take"

Capt. J. T. McCullagh:
McCullagh, educated at St. Andrew's College and Trinity College Medical School, was wounded while collecting casualties in front of Jacob' s Factory. He had joined the RAMC on the outbreak of war and had served in Gallipoli with the 7th Battalion, Royal Dublin Fusiliers. He was stationed at Portobello Barracks after his recovery from a wound and typhoid fever.

Boland's Mills 
Commandant Eamonn De Valera, Officer Commanding 3rd Battalion Irish Volunteers sent the members of Cumann na mBan, who were attached to his unit, back to the GPO on Easter Monday. Individual companies of this Battalion provided first aid from their limited resources during the fierce fighting in the Battalion sector of operation.

Mr. Charles Hachette Hyland, LDS, RCSI: 
A dental surgeon, Hyland donned his white coat and helped rescue Sherwood Foresters who were ambushed at Mount Street Bridge on Wednesday, April 26. He was shot on the following day when looking out the back door of his residence, 3 Percy Place, Northumberland Road. 

South Dublin Union
4th Battalion, Irish Volunteers
Which had occupied the South Dublin Union had no members of Cumann na mBan stationed with them in the Union, There were 26 members of Cumann na mBan at the Marrowbone Lane Distillery and they "cooked, gave first aid and carried dispatches" There is no record of the treatment of the casualties in this area of operations. 

Nurse Margaret Keogh:
A member of the staff of the South Dublin Union, Keogh was killed during the fighting in the eastern part of that complex on Easter Monday. Her death was the subject of questions in House of Commons and the undersecretary for War said that she had been accidentally shot.

General Post Office
Lt. George Henry Mahony, Indian Army Medical Service
Who had graduated from the National University of Ireland in 1913, had been invalided home following an accident. He was taken prisoner near Amiens Street Station early on Easter Monday afternoon, and was brought under escort to the General Post Office. Mahony was interrogated by The O'Rahilly and Desmond Fitzgerald on the following morning and was brought by Fitzgerald to the field hospital which had been set up in the GPO. There he saw a selection of surgical instruments, including a veterinary thermometer, and a haphazard collection of drugs and other medical supplies. He was joined by a John MacLoughlin, a chronically unsuccessful medical student of 10 years standing. MacLoughlin had joined the Irish Volunteers in the GPO on impulse. Volunteer James Ryan, a medical student at St. Vincent's Hospital, had charge of the hospital which was staffed by members of Cumann na mBan. There was a first-aid post and, in a large sorting room, beds for the more seriously wounded. 

Few casualties were treated by the medical staff until the morning of Thursday, April 27, when the British forces began to isolate the position and the east side of Sackville Street was ablaze. Mahony found himself in an invidious position torn between his duty as a doctor and his duty as an Army officer. He decided that it was not disloyal to assist the wounded and he, along with Ryan and MacLoughlin, treated James Connolly who had received a serious wound in the lower leg. 

On the evening of Friday, April 28, Mahony was part of a group, lead by Capt. Michael O'Reilly and Desmond Fitzgerald, which set out to reach the Coliseum Theatre on Henry Street through the adjacent houses. This party included 16 wounded Irish Volunteers and 12 of the 15 members of Cumann na mBan who had been in the GPO. Mahony was called back to the GPO to render further aid to Connolly who was incapacitated and in severe pain. 

On his return to the Coliseum Theatre, the party tried to get to Jervis Street Hospital by way of Middle Abbey Street under the cover of a Red Cross flag. Their way was blocked by a group of Sherwood Foresters to whom they surrendered and Mahony was released. Volunteer Ryan stayed with Connolly and was one of the last to leave the GPO as he had to take care of the casualties which occurred during the evacuation. He escaped to Moore Lane where he had to treat further casualties with the scant medical supplies which he had been able to bring in an apothecary's basket, 

On the evening of Saturday, April 29, this group of Irish Volunteers laid their 18 wounded out on the pavement in Moore Street and surrendered.

Elizabeth O'Farrell
A member of Cumann na mBan, O’Farrell was one of the three women who remained with the GPO garrison after its evacuation to Moore Street. She passed through the British Army lines and met Brigadier General W. H. M. Lowe, who was in charge of the forces in Dublin, carrying a verbal message from Commandant - General P. H. Pearse in relation to the terms of surrender. She subsequently accompanied Pearse to meet Lowe when the formal surrender took place. In company with Captain H. de Courcy Wheeler, she went to the various Irish Volunteer and Irish Citizen Army positions carrying the order to surrender. Capt. Wheeler was a brother of Surgeon William Ireland de Courcy Wheeler of Mercer's Hospital. 

Dublin Castle
Dr. Kathleen Lynn 
Dr. Kathleen Lynn, who had been appointed Chief Medical Officer by James Connolly. The Irish Citizen Army, was unique among nationalist organizations in providing both military and medical training to all members, irrespective of gender. Dr. Lynn had been awarded an MB, BCH, BAO by the Royal University of Ireland in 1899 and had become a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (FRCSI ) in 1909.

She was driven to City Hall after leaving medical supplies with the Irish Citizen Army unit which had occupied St. Stephen's Green. She attended Capt. Sean Connolly who had been fatally wounded while in charge of the Irish Citizen Army group which had entered and withdrawn from Dublin Castle shortly after noon on Easter Monday. They occupied City Hall which was captured following a counterattack by troops from Dublin Castle and Dr. Lynn was taken prisoner. 

St. Stephen's Green
When the members of the Irish Citizen Army occupied St. Stephen's Green, Madeleine Ffrench-Mullen set up a Red Cross post in one of the summer houses. 

College of Surgeons
After the buildings on the north side of the Green were occupied the Irish Citizen Army were forced to retreat to the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland building which they occupied until surrendering on Sunday, April 30l. A small hospital equipped with stretchers and a first-aid kit was set up in a room at the rear of the College. The history of the College records that "Everywhere were huge glass jars filled with objects for students, pebbles and specimens. In an adjoining room, the jars had parts of human bodies preserved in liquid." and that "Space beneath the seats of the chemistry lecture theatre in the rear of the building was fitted up as a mortuary." The College history continues 

"From the date of surrender until Saturday, May 27th , the College was occupied by 400 men of the 5th Lincolnshire Regiment, with twelve officers, under the command of Colonel Walter. Each of these officers was subsequently presented with a silver cigarette case by the grateful College. A subcommittee of the College was appointed to arrange an application for compensation, and the registrar, Alfred Miller, prepared a statement of claim, for which he was granted an honorarium of £100. An estimate of £764 was accepted in April of the following year for the repair of damage resulting from the rebellion." 

The college bedel who had inadvertently allowed the ICA access to the College when he opened the main door to admit Dr. John Knott, an "elderly, erudite and eccentric" Fellow of the College who lived on York Street, was summarily dismissed from the service of the College when, following a search of the premises by the military, a pair of silver-backed ladies' hairbrushes were found under the floorboards of the dining room of his apartment. 

Accused of taking or concealing those items he was dismissed with a payment of £2 in lieu of notice, and his formal petition for a reconsideration of his case was rejected. The bedel and his family had been confined to their living quarters for the duration of the occupation of the College and he had served the College for 26 years.

St. Vincent's Hospital 
Dr. Louis Courtney:
Who had graduated from UCD in 1915, was a house surgeon at St. Vincent's Hospital. He wrote that a civilian casualty was brought into Emergency shortly after firing had been heard by him on Easter Monday when the Irish Citizen Army was occupying St. Stephen's Green. That casualty, who was dead on arrival, was quickly followed by two others who were suffering from gunshot wounds. When he went to see James Ryan, who was the resident medical student, he found that Ryan had not slept in his bed and had not been seen in the hospital during that morning. Ryan did not return to the hospital until he had served a period of internment in Frongoch having seen action in the GPO. On the following morning Courtney was asked to take charge of the medical administration of the hospital by the Reverend Mother as many members of the medical staff were unable to get to the hospital.

Mr. Richard Francis Tobin
Affectionately known as Daddy Tobin, a surgeon at the hospital who lived on St. Stephen's Green, stayed in the hospital for the duration of the Rising. Tobin had been a Brigade Surgeon in the Indian Army Medical Service, and had held the post of assistant professor of surgery at the Army Medical School, Netley. He had qualified in 1864 and was Surgeon in Ordinary to His Excellency, the Lord Lieutenant, and held the post of His Majesty's Inspector of Anatomy in Ireland. His son had been killed in action in Gallipoli. Courtney said that 

"Tobin was fearless and felt in his element at the fighting but he was completely mystified by it and wondered what the rebels, as he called them, thought would result from an action of that kind. Stephen's Green, which he looked around, he considered to be an absolute trap and if and when the military took some of the surrounding houses, nobody would escape alive from it. ... He went around to Volunteers in the Green, who were of the Liberty Hall section of the Citizen Army, and explained this to them but they just passed it off and made no comment, ... Tobin then went down Grafton Street, where he found large crowds looting the shops. I think the first one was a confectionery shop there and he immediately set to with his blackthorn stick and beat them out left and right shouting, ‘Looting in time of war is punishable with death.’ They ran from him in all directions and he pursued this line from shop to shop through the town."

A motor ambulance was obtained by the Hospital and was used to bring in wounded Irish Citizen Army men and Irish Volunteers for treatment. These men were reluctant to go to hospital as they feared being subsequently picked up by the military authorities. Overflow cases from Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital were brought to St. Vincent's later in the week as the former hospital was very overcrowded with patients lying on mattresses in the corridors.

On the Wednesday of Easter Week, Dr. Courtney sanctioned the use of the ambulance to bring a nurse to her home at Ballybough Road to check on her elderly mother. He said that:

"On the way through O'Connell Street , there was nothing in particular to be seen. There were just the sandbagged windows of the Post Office, occasional shots and a dead horse at the road side, We collected one wounded man, a civilian, on the way, having been stopped by his friends."

He was witness to one of the final acts of the Rising being present at the surrender of the 3rd Battalion, Irish Volunteers. Of this event, he wrote:

"On Sunday, we went with the ambulance in to the Mount Street area and at approximately, three o'clock we learned that the occupants of Boland's Mills were surrendering. We stopped opposite what was then known as the Elpis Hospital (Nursing Home) and which has now passed into other hands. We watched while the garrison marched down in military order with their rifles and dropped them as they passed the hospital. That is, opposite about 72 or 73 Lower Mount Street, where I was standing. They looked exhausted, bedraggled and I would say somewhat disappointed, but under perfect control. ... As we waited ... one of the (Army) officers came to the ambulance and asked what we were doing there. I said we were there to attend the wounded and take them to hospital, if necessary. 'Well,' he said, ‘you don't appear to be very busy at present, so perhaps you might move on'.... We went back to the hospital and gradually it became evident that the Rising was at the end or practically so, although I had no opportunity of seeing what was occurring in other areas." 

Dr. Courtney said that Surgeon Tobin attended James Connolly who was held in Dublin Castle after the surrender and 'formed a very intimate friendship with him'. I understand that their first meeting was rather stormy when in true military fashion he upbraided Connolly and asked him if he realized (that) he would be executed. Connolly answered that he did and from then on Tobin's admiration for him increased.

He was literally amazed at the books which Connolly asked him to bring in when he offered to get him some reading matter. He saw him every day and it was once my privilege to go with him to the Castle Hospital and see the wounded leader but very little was said on that occasion. Tobin was also present at the execution and came in afterwards to St. Vincent's Hospital, rather downcast. But still he said (and almost one felt with some sadness ) that is the punishment for rebellion in time of war and that Connolly understood that from the word go and had no idea or hope or belief that anything else could occur." 

Commandant Thomas Ashe:
The only military success by the Irish Volunteers occurred when the 5th Dublin (Fingal) Battalion, under the command of Commandant Thomas Ashe, ambushed and defeated a superior force of Royal Irish Constabulary near Ashbourne on the Friday of Easter Week,

Dr. Richard Francis Hayes: 
From Lusk, who was the Medical Officer with the battalion, set up a small field hospital near the site of the ambush. Eight RIC men and one Irish Volunteer were killed in this action while fourteen RIC and three Irish Volunteers were wounded. Dr. Hayes, who was the medical officer of the Lusk Dispensary District, had qualified from RCSI in 1905. 

Mount Street Bridge
Mr. J. F. Cronin:
President of the Preston Irish Literary Society who was an eyewitness to the battle at Mount Street bridge, Cronin wrote, "I saw a soldier lying on the canal bridge apparently dead. Suddenly a woman came out into the open with what looked like a blue enamel jug. She ran down the canal bank and disappeared from view. Then a poor girl ran out on to the bridge while yet the bullets from rifles and revolvers were flying thickly from both sides. She put up both her hands, and almost instantly the firing ceased. Again the woman turned up, and she and the girl picked up the soldier, others then going out from the crowd to help bring him in. He was then taken into Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital. It was a throbbing incident which brought tears to the eyes, and the crowd cheered the little heroine. 

Several more soldiers were hit, and again the little girl ran out and brought them in time after time. I saw about eight soldiers taken into that hospital wounded, and I helped one in myself along with others of the crowd. The man I helped was reached by a little girl before we got him in, and she pushed an apron down his trousers to staunch the blood. He was shot in the small of the back and in the thigh. He was a Sherwood Forester and the little girl was crying over him."

Mr. L. G. Redmond Howard:
Another eyewitness, wrote that he and a Methodist clergyman "made our way to Dun's Hospital, where the doctors and nurses in their uniforms stood in the doorway, and we discussed the chances of rescue work, and within a couple of minutes we had all spontaneously determined to venture under the Red Cross. 

"I was given a white coat and a stretcher, and with poor Charlie ( Hachette) Hyland, who was afterwards shot accidentally by a stray bullet, I went forth with the rest of the staff. Anticipating us all, however, were two young girls in their teens, who had together rushed up with water and stood beside the prostrate men - and a great cheer went up from soldiers and crowd, and the Sinn Feiners immediately stopped firing. Loo Nolan and Kathleen Pierse were there names, as I afterwards found out, and as Dr. (Myles ) Keogh observed 'They must have been the bravest little colleens in all Ireland' for without Red Cross or white cloak they had taken all the risk, at which we even hesitated. 

"For two solid hours, we were backwards and forwards on that bridge, but never to my dying day will I forget the heroism of those Dun's nurses, who literally flocked out to danger, sometimes making a huge white barrier between the combatants, so that shots went like a great spray over their heads."

Dr. Myles Keogh:
To whom reference was made by Mr. Howard, was a dentist who lived at 4 Lower Mount Street and was dental surgeon at the Dublin Skin, Cancer and Urinary Hospital, 3 Hume Street. Keogh was active with the staff of Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital during the battle at Mount Street Bridge. On the Sunday of Easter Week, he was returning from Glasnevin Cemetery on a hearse which, under the Red Cross flag, had brought bodies for burial there. At the Poor Law Dispensary which was opposite the Hospital he was hailed by two men, Commandant Eamonn De Valera and a military cadet named MacKay who had been captured by the insurgents and held prisoner for five days. Cadet MacKay told Keogh that the Irish Volunteers wished to surrender and Keogh contacted Sir Arthur Ball, a surgeon at Sir Patrick Dun's, to make the necessary arrangements with the Army. Sir Arthur, who like Sir Thomas Myles held the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel RAMC, was Consultant Surgeon to the Wounded Soldiers in Ireland as well as being Regius Professor of Surgery at the University of Dublin.

Civilian Hospitals
Table 2: Dublin City Hospitals 1916 

Civilian Hospitals  Beds
1st, Btn, IV  Richmond 317
2nd, Btn IV  Adelaide 137
Meath 160
Mercer's 106
3rd. Btn. IV City Hospital 15
National Maternity 60
Royal City of Dublin 150
Royal Victoria Eye & Ear 100
Sir Patrick Dun's 108
4th. Btn. IV Coombe Lying-In 68
Dr. Stevens' 200
HQ  Jervis St. 100
Mater 345
Rotunda Lying In 130
ICA Dublin Castle Red Cross 250 (?)
St. Stephen's Green National Children's 45
St. Vincent's 160
Drumcondra Hospital, Whitworth Road
Temple Street Children's Hospital 
Cork Street Fever Hospital 
Incorporated Orthopedic Hospital,
Upper Merrion Street 
Skin, Cancer and Urinary Hospital, Holles Street
St. Michael's Hospital, Kingstown 
Monkstown Hospital. 
(?) Estimated

When considering the problems which were experienced by individual institutions the hospitals shown in Table 2 are grouped roughly by area of operation of the Irish Volunteer battalions and the Irish Citizen Army units. 

Richmond Hospital
In the case of the Richmond Hospital it was reported that shortly after midday on Easter Monday, Father Albert, a priest from Church Street, brought in the body of a child who had been shot through the head. The telephone in the Old Richmond was commandeered by the insurgents but following vigorous protest it was agreed that the hospital premises would be treated as neutral territory. Existing patients were moved from the male wards into the North Dublin Union and the adjacent auxiliary hospitals to make beds available for casualties which numbered about three hundred during the week, The majority of the male casualties were civilians, many of them adults injured while trying, under fire, to get food for their families. As the danger increased beds were placed on the floor to avoid bullets which were being fired from the rooftops. In the middle of the week food ran short at the hospital and Miss Hezlett, the Lady Superintendent, organized an expedition to replenish stocks. On a white sheet the words" Richmond Hospital Supplies" were marked with black tape and Dr. John Hackett Pollock, a recently qualified member of the hospital staff, and two students, bearing this banner, took a borrowed horse and cart out of the hospital. Passing several times through the firing they crossed to the south side f the city and returned safely with supplies. The number of persons treated during the week for bullet wounds and detained was 37 and about 100 had their wounds dressed and were discharged. Sir Thomas Myles, Dr Joseph Francis O'Carroll, a physician, and Dr. Alfred Boyd, an anesthetist, were singled out for praise by the Board of Governors for remaining at their posts during the period of the disturbances while they, in turn, drew the attention of the Board to the courageous way in which the entire resident medical and nursing staffs and servants had devoted themselves to the service of the hospitals during that very trying time. The Secretary reported that the Master of the North Dublin Union, Mr. D. Fagan, had shown great kindness to the hospitals by supplying them with bread, groceries, butter and eggs which could not be obtained elsewhere at the time.

Adelaide Hospital
Admissions to the Adelaide Hospital comprised four dead soldiers and one dead civilian with 70 wounded soldiers and civilians being admitted. Four of the latter group of admissions subsequently died in the hospital. Dr. Peacocke and Mr. Gunn stayed in the hospital for the duration of the fighting and Dr. John Lumsden, a former student at the hospital, brought provisions in a Saint John Ambulance Brigade ambulance when supplies ran low,

Meath Hospital
34 persons were admitted, 46 were treated but not admitted and 12 deaths occurred which were due to gunshot wounds. The scene in the neighborhood of the hospital was described by Robert Collis, son of Mr. W. S. Collis, a solicitor, who was a member and former chairman of the Hospital Joint Committee. Collis wrote that 

"My lather, who was just back from the Italian front, had fixed the car up with red crosses painted on napkins and had put himself at the disposal of the Meath Hospital some days before, and I procured a couple of Red Cross armlets myself so as to assist him. During the afternoon I brought in a note to the Meath Hospital about some wounded and then went down to the hospital gate to see what was happening around. About two hundred yards away I saw a flag flying from the tower above Jacob's Biscuit Factory. It was waving in the breeze: a tricolor - green, white and orange. A haze of brick dust hung in the air, caused by a stream of machine-gun bullets that were striking the tower below it. Now I walked down the back streets towards the factory. As I approached I found that its garrison was evacuating it and escaping into the narrow streets around the Coombe. Some were carrying tins of biscuits, others throwing out sacks of flour from the upper stories. One of them came up to me with a revolver in his hand, and pointing to the Officers Training Corps badge which I had put in my button-hole to enable me to pass through the British lines and had forgotten to remove, remarked 'You're just the sort of lad who gets shot if he doesn't look out, you know.' At that moment a bag of flour landed on a girl's head, and glad of a diversion, I carried her into the hospital."

Mercer's Hospital
About 130 persons were treated for gunshot wounds at Mercer's Hospital during the rebellion. The cases were attended to by Surgeons Maunsell and Wheeler and Dr. Christopher Francis Coyne who were ably assisted by the nursing staff under the Matron, Miss Jordan. R. Charles Maunsell had qualified in 1894 and had become an FRCSI in 1900. 

William Ireland de Courcy Wheeler;
Wheeler was the most distinguished surgeon in Ireland of his time. Among other posts,he was surgeon to the Household of His Excellency, the Lord Lieutenant, Surgeon at the Dublin Hospital for Wounded Officers, Surgeon to the Female Presbyterian Orphanage, Dublin, and Consultant Surgeon to the Royal National Hospital for Consumption and the Royal Dublin Fusiliers Association. The history of the hospital says that "Wheeler was mentioned in dispatches for treating wounded soldiers under fire during the Easter Rising. On Easter Monday, ignoring snipers, he made his way across Saint Stephen's Green to Mercer's to attend an officer with a chest injury. Two days later he attended a soldier at the corner of Dawson street in the small hours. He also administered to two officers of the Sherwood Foresters who were wounded in Fitzwilliam Street."

Holles Street City Hospital for Diseases of the Skin and Cancer, 
At their May meeting, the managing committee of The City Hospital for Diseases of the Skin and Cancer, Holles Street, proposed that their deep sense of appreciation of the valor and unflagging devotion to duty of Dr. Christopher Michael O'Brien, the physician at the hospital, be placed on record, Dr. O'Brien had played a fearless and humane part in the historic battle of Mount Street Bridge and had opened this specialized hospital for the treatment of the wounded to help cope with the unprecedented demand for hospital accommodation elsewhere in the city. The Committee also expressed their obligations to Messrs. Boland Ltd. for their generous supplies of bread not only for the intern patients but also for the sick and hungry poor attending the dispensaries. 

Dr. Reginald Joseph White, the Master of the National Maternity Hospital, and the Lady Superintendent were also mentioned as they had arranged a supply of meat, bread and butter. The thanks of the Committee were expressed to the Secretary of the Royal Irish Automobile Club, Dawson Street, Mr. Herbert S. Chaytor, who had made ambulances available to the hospital to transport patients and carry bread from Messrs. Boland's Bakeries.

National Maternity Hospital, Holles Street
Early in Easter Week the National Maternity Hospital, Holles Street, experienced difficulties obtaining food supplies for staff and patients. The Lady Superintendent and the nursing staff managed to secure the needed supplies at considerable personal risk because of the intensity of the fighting. Many civilians in the district lost their lives in the same quest. On Wednesday, after the military had secured Mount Street Bridge, the firing around the hospital had become so heavy that it was necessary to fly the Red Cross flag from the building. 

At that time, Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital was filled to overflowing with wounded and as it was being constantly swept with rifle fire it was found necessary to throw open the Maternity Hospital for the treatment of casualties. The Master, assisted by members of the medical staff and some civilians from the neighborhood. responded to the many calls for help and carried the wounded back for treatment at the hospital. In all some 40 bullet wounds of a 'shocking nature' were treated at the Hospital and 12 of these proved fatal. After the surrender, most of the cases were removed to St. Vincent's Hospital by Royal Irish Automobile Club ambulances which also carried bread from Boland's Bakery to the hospital.

Royal City of Dublin Hospital, Baggot Street
The Board of Directors of the Royal City of Dublin Hospital, Baggot Street, at their meeting which was held on May 12, 1916, paid tribute to exceptional services rendered by the Lady Superintendent, the nursing sisters, the day and night nurses, the temporary probationers as well as by the medical staff and students. Appreciation of the efforts of the many friends who came forward with gifts of food, bedding and dressings and with offers of help was expressed by the Board. Upwards of 200 casualties were treated during the week. 

The history of the hospital reads: 
"During the rebellion of 1916 casualties flooded to the hospital and over 200 individuals were treated. The first cases were brought to the hospital on Easter Monday. The hospital came under direct fire during the conflict and a considerable quantity of glass was broken particularly in the operating theatre but nobody was injured. A constant stream of wounded soldiers, civilians and rebels was brought to the hospital and they were cared for by the nurses under the leadership of the matron, Miss E. A. Eddison. Fourteen of those brought into the hospital were dead on admission and another sixteen died from the wounds which they had received. The doctors worked day and night and food, dressings and other supplies were delivered to the hospital by friends at great personal risk. 

The medical staff of the hospital were helped by a number of doctors who volunteered their assistance including Adams A. McConnell, who later became Regius Professor of Surgery at Trinity and a pioneering neurosurgeon at the Richmond Hospital. During the fighting the staff became aware of two wounded soldiers signaling for help. The soldiers were trapped on top of the church tower in nearby Haddington Road. Two resident students managed to reach the soldiers at great personal risk but it was several hours before they were able to carry them back to the hospital for treatment as the belfry of the church came under heavy fire."

Royal Victoria Eye and Ear Hospital
The Matron of the Royal Victoria Eye and Ear Hospital reported, in early May, to the Council of the Hospital that "On Tuesday, April 25th, at 6 a.m., a soldier came in having been shot through the legs at Leeson Street. On Thursday, April 27th, there were thirty empty beds here, and hearing that the Royal City of Dublin Hospital was overcrowded I told Dr. Stoney that we could take some patients. Forty-two soldiers were immediately sent over, 13 were convalescent, and the remainder Sherwood Foresters, who had come in the night before, some only suffering from shock, but three or four with fairly serious wounds. Three more soldiers came here direct, making a total of 46 soldiers. 

The total number of patients in Hospital on this day was 116. On May 5th, we were asked to take seven civilians who were injured during the riots and treated at 40 Merrion Square, as that temporary hospital was being closed. Very great difficulty was experienced for several days in getting sufficient food. Milk and meat came regularly but it was impossible to get sugar or butter and for two days the bread van failed to come, However by sending a message to the Castle we were able to get enough. The diet was considerably restricted for five or six days. ... The neighbors kindly lent beds and offered sleeping accommodation for any soldiers who were able to be up and about. Several shots were fired into the sanitary block at the east end of the Hospital and one into the outpatient department but no one was injured. 

Fifteen of the soldiers were discharged on May 10, sixteen were transferred to King George V Hospital on May 13 and 12 more we expect to send away this week. There was a great deal of shooting and sniping all around this locality almost all the time which made it most dangerous for anyone approaching or leaving the Hospital". Dr. Richard Atkinson Stoney, who was a surgeon at the Royal City of Dublin Hospital, had qualified in 1901 and had become an FRCSI in 1906.

Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital
The report for Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital indicated that "It was on Wednesday evening following Easter Monday that the Sherwood Foresters marched towards Dublin into the death trap which awaited them in the neighborhood of Northumberland Road. Into the inferno the Lady Superintendent and Nurses of Sir Patrick Dun's Nursing Home bravely stepped forth at about four in the afternoon. They were the first on the scene and used quilts as stretchers. 

"The Resident Medical Staff were also gallantly engaged in this rescue work and between them they carried 79 wounded men, including soldiers and rebels into the Home. Some idea of the strenuous duty may be gathered from the fact that the time occupied was from four in the afternoon to midnight. Three clergymen also helped to carry the wounded under fire, these being Rev. Fr. MacNevin, Rev. Fr. McCann and Rev. Mr. Hall of Dalkey. Into the fire likewise entered Miss Huxley, the distinguished Lady Superintendent of Elpis (Nursing Home), which is situated almost opposite to the Nursing Home, and some of her assistants." Sir Patrick Dun's Nursing Home was situated at the rear of the hospital on Lower Mount Street close to Mount Street Bridge. 

Dr. Stevens' Hospital
The report for Dr. Stevens' Hospital reads 

"Over one hundred cases were treated during the week of disturbance and the medical staff and nursing staff (under the superintendence of Miss Phillips) were constantly on duty during that very trying time." 

Coombe Lying In Hospital
In the case of the Coombe Lying In Hospital the staff were involved in providing shelter and food for women and children who had sought refuge From the fighting in the hospital as well as treating over thirty cases of gunshot wounds as inpatients, The Matron and Rev. Fr. Peter Monahan of Francis St. Presbytery were singled out for special praise for their efforts in securing food for the poor of the area. 

Jervis Street Hospital
Because of its location, the staff of Jervis Street Hospital were on duty for the duration of the Rising. The first cases to be brought in on Easter Monday were four dead soldiers and a woman who had been shot dead near her home in Capel Street. Between 600 and 700 cases were dealt with in that period and except for those who had injured themselves when looting the remainder suffered from bullet wounds. 

The City Coroner, Dr Louis Byrne, was in attendance for the duration and on one night, accompanied by a hospital porter named James Dooley and an unnamed civilian, rescued a badly wounded soldier. Dr. Byrne, who was a surgeon at Jervis Street and a medical examiner of Saint John Ambulance Brigade, had become an FRCSI in 1889. The history of the hospital records that "During the Easter Rebellion house surgeons, Doctors Frank Power, Tim Murphy and Corny McGill converted a grocer's van into an ambulance and wearing short white coats bearing a red cross administered first aid in O'Connell Street and brought casualties to the hospital." 

The history also records the treatment of wounded Lancers who were ambushed near the GPO on Easter Monday and tells of the efforts of the nursing staff to protect the identity of wounded insurgents when the Army was searching the hospitals for them. Ambulant insurgents were disguised as ward maids and female cleaners while some of the seriously wounded were kept in a ward which was reserved for the religious sisters. The nurses destroyed their uniforms, hats and boots to complete the disguise. 

Mater Hospital
The report of the Mater Hospital simply reads "The Mater Hospital, under the care of the Sisters of Mercy, being in the center of an area where some very keen fighting took place, was called upon to deal with a very heavy casualty list. The medical and nursing staff worked energetically both day and night, and spared no efforts to relieve the sufferings of the wounded."

The National Children's Hospital
The Matron of The National Children's Hospital, Miss Geraldine Matthews, went out into Harcourt Street to assist a wounded man despite heavy fire from soldiers stationed at Harcourt Street Railway Station at a rebel who was trying to escape down the street on a bicycle. Assisted by Mr. Richard Lane Joynt she conveyed the patient on a stretcher to the private hospital which is attached to the Children's Hospital and afterwards brought in two women who had been shot at the same time. Several other serious cases suffering from bullet wounds received in the vicinity of the hospital were admitted for treatment. Mr. Joynt, an FRCSI from 1894, was surgeon at the Meath Hospital and at the County Dublin Infirmary and lived at 84 Harcourt Street.

St. Vincent's Hospital
The first victims of the rebellion who were admitted to St. Vincent's Hospital were brought in between 12 and 1 o'clock on Easter Monday. They were two civilians and both were dead. About 45 persons were dealt with altogether, nine of whom were either dead on admission or died soon after admission. The Hospital was struck once or twice by bullets one of which passed through the window of the Mother Superior's room, but no staff member was injured. Several members of the medical staff, at great personal risk, went out with stretchers and brought in cases from Saint Stephen's Green and elsewhere. 

There was no difficulty in getting supplies of food, and on one day, Dr. John Marshall Day, Medical Superintendent at Cork Street Fever Hospital, brought a supply of bread to the hospital and succeeded in bringing supplies to several other places as well. The recently published history of St. Vincent's Hospital refers to the fact that "Between the end of April and the middle of May 1916 eighteen women were admitted to the hospital suffering from either gunshot or bullet wounds. The youngest patient was aged 12; two died. During the conflict the authorities of the hospital like the other voluntary hospitals in the city ignored a demand by the British forces to report cases of gunshot wounds and other suspicious injuries admitted to the wards."

King George V Military Hospital
There is no information available in relation to the King George V Military Hospital. A brief sentence in the chronicle referred to previously said " King George's Military Hospital, about one hundred cases" while Dr. James Ryan wrote that after leaving the General Post Office "We laid our wounded on the footpath in Moore Street for the evening. They numbered about eighteen in all. We mingled the strong with the weak so that they might help each other." Readers interested in surgery may be amazed to learn that they all made a speedy recovery in George V Hospital, now St. Bricin's. 

Richmond Barracks or Portobello Barracks
In like manner, there is no information relating to the treatment of casualties in the military hospitals at Richmond Barracks or Portobello Barracks.

Trinity College
In an article entitled Inside Trinity College which was published in Blackwood's Magazine in July 1916 the following paragraph is found "Casualties began to come in. No. 15, a house in the College quadrangle known as Botany Bay and near the Brunswick Street gate, had been fitted up as an emergency hospital. It proved to be of the greatest value, not only for dealing with wounds, but for administering to the ailments of the soldiers within. The treatment of sore feet, for instance, was continually proceeding. A staff of Red Cross Volunteers and members of the RAMC were available day and night."

Dublin Castle Red Cross Hospital
In the case of the Dublin Castle Red Cross Hospital there were 67 wounded soldiers present on Easter Monday. One hundred and eighteen wounded soldiers were brought in as well as thirty four wounded members of the 'Sinn Féin party'. Twenty civilians and two police constables received the attention of the medical and nursing staff. Thirty six deaths occurred. All of these and about thirty others, who were brought from other hospitals, were interred in the garden at the rear of the Castle, but some of them were subsequently transferred elsewhere for reburial.

Dublin University VAD Hospital
The hospital was situated at 19 Mountjoy Square,as under the charge of Sister Gertrude Wood. On Easter Monday, she opened the hospital, assisted by a Miss Hannan and a St. John Ambulance dresser, Mr. Arthur Bacon. The military authorities sent a surgeon, Captain Friar, RAMC, to provide medical care. The small staff did excellent work with no outside help reaching them during Easter Week. The hospital premises were attacked by rebels from adjacent houses during the early part of the 'disturbance'.

Saint Patrick's Hospital
The history of the Saint Patrick's Hospital reproduces a report which Dr. Richard Leeper, FRCSI, Medical Superintendent, wrote to the Board of Governors which ran:

"Owing to the Rebellion no meeting of the Governors has occurred since I last reported to your board on April 1st, Since then the following patients have been admitted - Mrs. Gibson, Miss Briscoe, Band Sergeant Keogh and Miss O'Donovan, The illness of both these last mentioned cases was produced by the shock and terror caused by the insurrection and [both] were admitted during the height of the Rebellion. The Army ambulance which conveyed Mr. Keogh to the Hospital was fired on whilst conveying the patient to the Hospital. Three patients died all from natural causes. Owing to the disturbances it was exceedingly difficult to bury the remains and in the case of Rev H. (?) King-Finley I had to place the coffin for some days in the garden before I could with the valuable help of Mr. Irwin (governor and chaplain) have him interred in the parish graveyard. Mr. Irwin attended repeatedly at the Hospital during the Rebellion at considerable risk to his life. 

On my arrival here from Lucan on Easter Monday, firing commenced all round the district and continued more or less constantly for 10 days. At many times the rattle of machine gun fire was often continuous for hours and the bullets came into the wards in several places. The greatest danger was caused to the lunatics by the firing of the soldiers at the Kingsbridge, Bullets entered the New Wing and raked the top ward on the ladies side. When this began I personally placed barricades and padding material such as mattresses in the windows. It seems wonderful that none of the patients or nurses were killed as the fire lasted for several hours. A guard of 40 soldiers were at the front gate and I and my wife fed these men as well as we could during the Rebellion.

My great anxiety at first was that the Hospital would be occupied by the Rebels as was the Union and if this had been attempted, I would have much wished for your Board's direction as to whether it were best to resist or allow the Rebels to occupy the Hospital. It has been a most trying experience for us all and I cannot but report upon the admirable calmness and attention to their duties which characterized the conduct of the nurses during the period as (sic) they came under fire and their help in preventing the patients from becoming alarmed and panic stricken and the discipline of the Hospital disturbed." 

His report continued: "I desire to draw your attention to the conduct of your man (John) Tully (a van man) and also to that of John Lane. These men throughout the Rebellion at great personal risk brought into us the milk from (the hospital farm at) Lucan, and sheep and lambs, which I had killed. I would suggest that some honorarium be given them in recognition of their conduct, which was largely responsible for our suffering no hunger, and for the patients being properly fed through the insurrection." 

The Board awarded Tully and Lane £2 each at the June Meeting. Band Sergeant Keogh who was diagnosed as suffering from acute mania with homicidal and suicidal tendencies was subsequently discharged into his wife's care.

Table 3 Military and Civilian Casualties
Military Officers
Other Ranks
RIC Officers
Other Ranks
Dublin Metropolitan Police
Civilians and Insurgents 
of which IV and ICA

Note: There is no separate tabulation of wounded Irish Volunteer Irish Citizen Army members.

Voluntary Services
Saint John Ambulance Brigade 
Mr. William G. Smith:
In a report of work done during the Sinn Féin rebellion, Mr. William G. Smith, District Superintendent, Number 12 (Irish) District, St. John Ambulance Brigade wrote that the first steps to organize first aid work were taken by the late Corps Superintendent, Holden Stodart. He contacted the military authorities offering help which was not required at that time, Easter Monday. On Tuesday, the military asked the Brigade for volunteers to act as orderlies with the RAMC at Portobello Military Barracks and at the Dublin Castle Red Cross Hospital. An ambulance patrol was stationed at Harcourt Street Railway Station on that day. On Wednesday a large number of officers and men of the Brigade as well as members of the public who possessed First Aid Certificates reported to Dr. John Lumsden, the Deputy Commissioner, at the Brigade Depot, 51 Dawson Street. 

These were allocated to the military hospitals and to the City of Dublin Hospital, Baggot Street, where a room was placed at the disposal of the Brigade members. It was from there that Brigade members rendered help to the Sherwood Foresters who were ambushed on their way from Kingstown to the city. Corps Superintendent Holden Stodart was killed near Mount Street Bridge while going with a stretcher party to the aid of a wounded soldier. An employee of Messrs. Arthur Guinness, Son and Company, he was from Blackrock and had been educated at High School. He had been awarded the Coronation Silver Medal for his work with the Brigade since the outbreak of war. 

He was survived by his wife and one child. While medals and certificates were awarded for meritorious service by the Brigade there was no provision for the award of posthumous honors so his bravery could not be formally acknowledged by the Brigade. The War Office decided to place officers and men of the Red Cross and St. John Ambulance Brigade in the same position with regard to pensions and compassionate allowances as the holders of equivalent ranks in the Army. This meant that the Stodart family were awarded the pension and allowance of a Lieutenant who had been killed in action. Holden Stodart is buried at Mount Jerome Cemetery. The inscription on his grave reads "In loving memory of my devoted husband Holden Stodart Corps Superintendent Saint John Ambulance Brigade who lost his life on duty during the rebellion April 26 1916 aged 33 years". 

Dr. John Lumsden:
Deputy Commissioner, Number 12 (Irish) District was the most eminent physician in Dublin at that time. He had obtained a BA from Trinity College, Dublin in 1891, an MB, BCh, BAO in 1894 and an MD in 1895. He was Senior Physician at Mercer's Hospital, a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland, Chief Medical Officer to Guinness Brewery, Consultant Medical Adviser to the Commissioners of Irish Lights, Medical Officer at Iveagh House, Director of the City of Dublin Nursing Institute, Medical Referee to the Royal Assurance Company and was a Knight of Grace of the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem.

An eyewitness wrote after the Rising that "The conduct of Dr. Lumsden was simply magnificent. He coolly and calmly knelt in the middle of the road attending to the wounded soldiers while bullets were flying from the houses on both sides. He helped the men into the ambulance wagons himself, sent them off and waited until they returned, and during all the time he was under a heavy crossfire." 

Divisional Areas
For operational purposes, the Brigade had divided the area within the city boundaries into three zones, on the north side the zone ran from the Custom House to Kingsbridge Station, on the south side a zone ran from Kingsbridge Station eastwards to Dublin Castle and the final zone was from there to Ringsend. Members of the Brigade performed duty in every area where fighting took place providing first aid, collecting wounded and bringing them by foot or ambulance to hospital. Both men and women were involved in this dangerous work. 

Members of the Brigade also acted as ambulance orderlies on the motor ambulances which were provided by the Royal Irish Automobile Club. The vehicles were allocated to the RAMC and, under the direction of Deputy Commissioner Lumsden, to civilian ambulance service duties. The Club sent out a total of 15 ambulances of which two were cars belonging to the Club itself, the others being loaned with chauffeurs by private car owners.

The following account of an ambulance run from Dublin Castle to the Church Street area is given in the report of work done by the Brigade:

"Captain (Herbert Vernon) Stanley (RAMC, who had graduated from TCD in 1908 ) asked us at 9.20 on Saturday evening would we go to Church Street and take in two badly wounded soldiers. It was, he said, hazardous, and (as we knew that he was up to his eyes in work) he could not accompany us, as Lieutenant (Charles ) Allen (Indian Army Medical Service ) was away on the other ambulance. When the squad was asked they said nothing, our driver simply cranked up, someone reported 'all aboard' and without another word we were off. When we reached the military barricade in North King Street we were told we could go no further with the ambulance as it was most unsafe, the outlying enemy not yet having received any news of the surrender of their leaders. We left the ambulance and put our stretchers in the armoured motor car, and proceeded, as it seemed to us after our fast ambulance, at a snail's pace to Church Street and stopped outside a public house where 'four ways met'. The armoured car turned to interpose its bulk, as far as possible, between the snipers and ourselves, and we opened the door, threw out the stretchers, and, acting on instructions, jumped out ourselves, lay down on the street and crawled, dragging the stretchers after us, into the house. The shop was small, a wooden counter in front, no plate glass windows, six or seven soldiers (two,dead), two RAMC men, five of our squad, and the sergeant in charge of the soldiers all lying down, One of us lifted his head to see where the wounded lay, and was told more forcibly than politely to keep his head down unless we had a spare stretcher.

"It was not easy, in any case, to load a man on to a stretcher, but lying down yourself in the dark and under fire does not make matters more easy. However, we got the men on the stretcher and loaded into the armoured car safely. Two bearers had very narrow escapes, bullets passing through their clothing; one stretcher handle had a splinter knocked out of the extreme end. Two stretchers loaded take up a great deal of room, and having seen all safely away our Superintendent had to remain behind, the armoured car promising to return later on and take him and the soldiers away. The snipers were very busy when the armoured car went off several bullets striking the floor a short distance from the bulkhead behind which the soldiers were lying."

Dr. Ella Webb:
In her report on the work of the Nursing Divisions, the Lady Superintendent, Dr. Ella Webb, said that the principal work undertaken was the transformation of the War Hospital Supply Depot, 40 Merrion Square, into a temporary hospital. This task was completed in three hours, starting at 2 p.m. when the first of the members reported for duty. By 5 p.m. an amputation was going on in the improvised operating theatre and about half of the thirty beds being occupied. A very considerable amount of hard physical labor was involved in this task as beds, bedding and household utensils were collected from households in the Merrion Square area for use in the hospital. Food and other provisions were obtained from a nearby grocery shop. 

The Hospital was staffed by five medical officers, two house surgeons, two lady superintendents and eleven nursing sisters and trained nurses. The total number of beds reached 40 when the conversion was complete but not all were occupied at any time as "milder" cases were sent to the auxiliary hospitals which had been prepared by other Divisions. Of the cases treated only one died, an old man of 80, the others all recovering including two very serious lung cases, two amputations as well as many other minor operations. 

The Deputy Head of the depot, Mrs. Hignett, with the canteen and kitchen staff were singled out for special praise as there was a plentiful supply of "particularly nice" food for both patients and staff at a time when provisions of any sort were most difficult to obtain. Members of the College of Science Nursing Division rendered excellent service by bringing sphagnum dressings to the hospital.

Dr. Ella Webb who had been awarded a BA in 1899 qualified as a doctor in 1904 with the award of MB, BCh, BAO from the Royal University of Ireland and obtained her MD in 1906. She was Lady District Superintendent, Number 12 (Irish ) District, Saint John Ambulance Brigade, Lecturer at the Dublin Metropolitan Technical School for Nurses, Visiting Physician to the Female Penitentiary, a Physiology Demonstrator at the Cecilia Street Medical School, an Assistant Anatomy Demonstrator at the Women's Department, Medical School, TCD, and a member of the Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland. During the rebellion she cycled through the firing lines to visit hospitals and aid posts. 

When it was thought that the insurrection would last for some considerable time and that the insurgents would have large numbers of wounded requiring medical attention several auxiliary hospitals were equipped by other Divisions. These were The Litton Hall, Leeson Park, which was staffed by the Leeson Park Division and The High School, Harcourt Street, which was staffed by members of the Dundrum and Harcourt Street Divisions. This latter hospital was greatly assisted by a band of ladies at Dundrum who organized an all-day working party to provide dressings and set up a food supply depot. Large quantities of both food and dressings were provided and at the time of the evacuation of the hospital at the end of the rebellion these supplies were sent to Mercer's Hospital. The members who were attached to the Merrion Square Supply Depot worked at providing meals for soldiers, and making dressings and shirts when that building reverted to its original use.

Private Houses
In addition, three private homes were readied for use as auxiliary hospitals but these were not used. Other duties undertaken by the Divisions or individual members were the housing of refugee women and children, helping at RAMC dressing stations, carrying bales of dressings on stretchers (often through the firing line) to the general hospitals which required them, feeding the poor and rendering first aid to civilians. A number of members were transferred to the Dublin City Branch of the British Red Cross Society and were involved in washing and sterilization of bedding and dressings from the Dublin Castle Hospital. One member treated in her own home a soldier who was suffering from heat or sun stroke and when able to so do brought him to Baggot Street Hospital. Others provided food and tea for the soldiers who were in their neighborhoods.

The Divisions and members who lived in the Kingstown and Blackrock areas looked after the needs of the large numbers of troops who were arriving from England. This included the provision of beds, food and, in some cases, clothing. The auxiliary hospital at Monkstown dealt with a large number of casualties. The country Divisions mobilized and placed themselves at the disposal of the military or RIC. The Sligo Division undertook to provide all the soldiers drafted into that district with socks, as the men had been dispatched very hurriedly from England and had few comforts. 

British Red Cross Society
Mrs. Constance Heppell-Marr:
Assistant County Director, City of Dublin Branch, British Red Cross Society, allocated members of the Voluntary Aid Detachments to nursing, food preparation, stretcher. bearing and sterilization duties and supervised the setting up of two auxiliary hospitals at 29 Lower Fitzwilliam Street and at 32 Fitzwilliam Square. The former, which was the headquarters of the Dublin City Branch, had facilities for 50 patients while the latter, the residence of a Miss Meade, had 25 beds. In both cases food and bedding were donated by the public, any surplus food being sent to the main hospitals. 

A Mrs. Eadie put her house at Ballsbridge at the disposal of the military during the time that they were stationed there. She provided meals and sleeping accommodation for Red Cross men who were on duty and helped some of the wounded members of the Irish Association Volunteer Training Corps. The latter were the "Gorgeous Wrecks" who had been ambushed on Easter Monday when returning to Beggars Bush Barracks 
from a route march.

Mrs. Crawfurth Smith:
Commandant, Number 2 Detachment, converted her Ailesbury Park residence into an Emergency Hospital with thirty beds which were occupied by wounded soldiers. The members of the Blackrock Branch of the War Hospital Supply Depot and Mrs. J. Snowden, St. Andrew's Sewing Club, supplied bandages, dressings and night shirts.

Dr. Reginald Christopher Peacocke:
Who was the Assistant County Director of the County Dublin Branch of the British Red Cross Society, had qualified in 1895 was Medical Officer to the Post Office and Honorary Physician to the Meath Protestant Industrial School. Two sisters, Misses J. and R. Fitzpatrick, members of the Number 2 Detachment, were singled out for special praise by Dr. Peacocke for their efforts in the Mount Street area and for subsequently dressing the wounds of Sinn Fein prisoners who were held in Richmond Barracks. Mr. Henry Olds was commended for his bravery in bringing a wounded man to safety. after rendering first aid to him on O'Connell Bridge despite being wounded himself. The Pharmacist to the Society, Mr. Kennedy, manned a dressing station which had been established by the RAMC at Dorset Street. 

The Dublin County Branch was involved in welfare work in Kingstown at the Corrig Castle Hospital where servicemen and women were provided with food and lodgings. Some wounded were treated there and civilian refugees were accommodated at that hospital. The Red Cross Work Guild, Kingstown supplied 108 pairs of socks and a dozen shirts to the troops as well as bedding and overcoats. In Balbriggan the Commandant of the Ladies VAD, Miss Warren, secured the use of the Technical School as a Canteen which provided hot meals for the troops.

On two occasions in his dispatch to Lord French, Field Marshal Commanding in Chief, The Home Forces, General J. G. Maxwell, Commanding in Chief the Forces in Ireland, refers to deliberate firing on nurses, Red Cross, St. John Ambulance and RAMC personnel as well as firing on ambulances and Fire Brigade units. This evoked a spirited response from Dr. Christopher Michael O'Brien who was at Mount Street Bridge. He wrote in the Irish Independent in July that no doctor, ambulance attendant or nurse was fired at or injured and that "the uplifted arm, whether clad in the doctors' surgical coat or white sheet was the signal for cessation of hostilities.". Mr. J. Crampton Walker wrote in May 26th issue of Irish Life that "The Sinn Feiners were continually accused of firing upon the Red Cross and the RAMC men - as indeed are the Germans but it would be very hard to get a better example of the impossibility of distinguishing these from combatants than was afforded at Mount Street Bridge where some of them fell. If looking from fifty yards it is almost impossible to make out the ridiculously small circular badge on the arm, one can imagine the chances of the RAMC in trench warfare,.."
Colonel Sir James Clark, Bart., CB, CMG

On May 2, the Chief Commissioner, Saint John Ambulance Brigade, Col. Sir James Clark, Bart., CB, CMG wrote to Dr. Lumsden "I write to congratulate you and the ambulance and nursing divisions and officers of your District on the very brilliant work which I am informed you and they carried out during the late Irish rising. It is one more instance of courage and devotion to duty added to the annals of the Brigade." Further letters of congratulation were sent to Dr. Lumsden by Sir Alfred Keogh, Director - General, Army Medical Service, Whitehall, Colonel 0. R. A. Julian, Deputy Director of Medical Services, Irish Command, Colonel E. W. MacConchy, Brigade Commander, 178th ( Sherwood Foresters ) Brigade, Major J. A. Black, RAMC, Portobello Barracks Hospital, the Board of the Royal City of Dublin Hospital, Baggot Street, the Benchers of the King's Inns and the 1st (Dublin) Company, Association of Volunteer Training Corps, the "Gorgeous Wrecks",

Capt. John Charles McWalter, RAMC:
The following is an extract from a report by Captain John Charles McWalter, RAMC "The St. John ambulance detachment exhibited considerable bravery, as they were required to pick up sick and wounded in the area between Marrowbone Lane and the Canal Bank, which was altogether occupied by the enemy forces. Their bravery struck me very much, for they were business men with families, who were required to proceed on foot through a rebel district, some in khaki uniform, and out of sight as well of protection from our soldiery. 

The district was so denuded of troops that they might all have been shot without any of our people knowing about it. In face of this danger they had to carry wounded and dead for half a mile to a mile before the ambulance wagon was reached and not one man exhibited hesitation or a desire to escape attack which, under the conditions he might well have refused Dr McWalter who had qualified as a doctor in 1897 had also qualified as a barrister at the King Inns in 1907.

Officers Training Corps
A review of members of the Officers Training Corps of Dublin University and of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, members of the Irish Association of Volunteer Training Corps and of both the St. John Ambulance and British Red Cross Voluntary Aid Detachments took place on the 6th of May in the park of Trinity College. The Prime Minister, Mr. Asquith, and Lady Wimborne, the wife of the Viceroy, were in attendance as distinguished visitors. 

The salute at the march past of the various units was taken by General Maxwell. Voluntary Aid Detachments which were represented were from the Four Courts, the Land Commission, the Royal College of Science, RIC Rathmines, City of Dublin, Howth, Pembroke, Kingstown, Carrickmines, Glenageary, the Dublin Building Trades, Guinness Brewery, Jacob's Biscuit Factory and Powers Distillery. Indian students from the King's Inns, who had performed ambulance work, paraded with the Rathmines unit.

General J. G. Maxwell
A letter was issued by General J. G. Maxwell from Headquarters, Irish Command, at Parkgate, Dublin, on 7th May 1916 which read 

"I desire to express my sincere appreciation of the services rendered during the recent disturbances in Dublin by the medical, surgical and nursing staffs of many of the city hospitals, and in particular of the gallantry shown by those nurses who exposed themselves to heavy fire in attending to and removing the wounded. Also to the members of the Red Cross and St. John Ambulance Societies, and the many medical men and private individuals who gave assistance in attending to the wounded or placed their houses at the disposal of the military for use as dressing stations. In numerous instances these services were rendered at considerable personal risk and under circumstances reflecting the greatest credit on those engaged in them."

On May 27, in the Royal Barracks, Gen. Maxwell inspected some of the units of the Royal Irish Automobile Club Ambulance Service, the Dublin Corporation ambulance and two motor ambulances of the Pembroke Urban Council which had seen service during the insurrection. Some of the vehicles bore bullet marks on their coachwork or holes in their canopies. One of the drivers, Martin Redmond, who had been wounded, was singled out for special mention by the General who expressed his grateful thanks to the ambulance staff.

Gen. Sandbach:
The General Officer Commanding the Dublin area, Gen. Sandbach, inspected members of the Kingstown and District Volunteer Corps, along with the local corps of Boy Scouts and Girl Guides and three senior members of the St. John Ambulance Association on 9th May in the grounds of the Marine Hotel, Kingstown.

Court Martial

Capt. J. C. Bowen-Colthurst:
On June 6, the court-martial of Captain J. C. Bowen-Colthurst, Royal Irish Rifles, took place at Richmond Barracks, with Major-General H. F. Lord Cheylesmore presiding. Bowen-Colthurst was charged with the murders of Francis Sheehy-Skeffington, Thomas Dickinson and Patrick Maclntyre on April 26 at Portobello Barracks. 

Capt. James McTurk, RAMC:
Medical evidence for the defense was provided by Capt. James McTurk, RAMC, who had known the defendant while both were serving at Portobello Barracks. He considered that Bowen-Colhurst was "not capable of exercising any sound judgment or discriminating between right and wrong." 

Dr. Alfred Robert Parsons, FRCPI
A Physician at the Royal City of Dublin Hospital, gave evidence of his medical examination of Bowen-Colthurst when he had returned from France in November, 1914, on medical leave. In addition to a wound in the arm he was in "condition of marked nervous exhaustion" being "unequal to any strain, which would have brought about a nervous breakdown probably affecting him mentally."

Dr. Parsons had met the defendant immediately prior to the sitting of the court and formed the opinion that "his condition was far from normal and that he was unbalanced. I felt that a very trivial incident at the time would absolutely upset his balance." 

Dr. Richard Robert Leeper:
Further evidence of mental instability was given to the court by Dr. Richard Robert Leeper, FRCSI, Medical Superintendent, St. Patrick's Hospital and by Captain George Lawless, Medical Superintendent, Armagh District Lunatic Asylum. 

Court Verdicts
The court found Bowen-Colthurst guilty of the murder of Sheehy-Skeffington and of Maclntyre but that he was insane at the time that he committed the acts. He was sentenced to be detained in a criminal lunatic asylum during His Majesty's pleasure.

Dublin Corporation
City Coroner, Dr. Louis A. Byrne,
At the Quarterly Meeting of the Municipal Council of the City of Dublin, which was held on 3rd July, a letter from the City Coroner, Dr. Louis A. Byrne, to the Lord Mayor, James Michael Gallagher, was read. It said 

"Now that the. excitement of the Insurrection has passed, I deem it my duty to bring to your notice the very great service rendered by the members of the City Fire Brigade, who worked with the Ambulances during that trying time. To my personal knowledge, these gallant fellows worked night and day, and several times under fire, bringing in wounded (Sinn Feiners, Military and Civilians), among the latter being women and children, and by their care and training saved many a valuable life". 

Lord Mayor, James Michael Gallagher
The Lord Mayor wrote in reply:

"I quite agree with every word you mention with reference to the historic work done by our Fire Brigade and Ambulance men during the trying time of Easter week. I was present on several occasions myself and saw them at work, and only for the great sacrifice they made ( running grave risks themselves) one of our largest Hospitals may have been destroyed by fire, and too much praise cannot be given to the Ambulance men who did more than their share bringing in the wounded." The hospital referred to in the reply of the Lord Mayor was Jervis Street of which incident Captain Thomas P. Purcell, commander of the Dublin Fire Brigade, wrote "I received what I call the culminating call of the many from the doctors and clergymen in Jervis Street Hospital. That was at 8pm on Saturday. 

"I was informed that the fires were spreading closely in the direction of the hospital, that sparks were raining on the glass roof of their verandah, and they said that if I could not do something to stop the fire's course then I must make immediate arrangements for the removal of the patients. To the firemen's credit, they one and all declared that they would save the hospital, even under the bullets. We immediately hurried our available force out, recovered our engines and other apparatus from O'Connell Bridge, and started on for the big fight. I also called for the assistance of any available men and apparatus from Messrs. Power's Distillery and Guinness's Brewery. 

"Both sections kindly responded to the appeal and sent men and means which I ordered to work at various points. We fought all Saturday night, stopping the fire where it was possible to stop it and saved the hospital. ... By 7 o clock on Sunday morning we had the conflagration, as we may call it, completely under control. But since we have had to deal by detachments with other outbreaks or dangerous re-kindlings over the whole area."

Capt. Purcell, commander of the Dublin Fire Brigade:
Purcell estimated that the value of the buildings and stock which had been destroyed by fire during Easter Week amounted to £2.5 million. The number of buildings involved in the fires was over 200 with the greatest damage being concentrated on Sackville Street, Henry Street, Lower and Middle Abbey Streets, Earl Street and Eden Quay. While no member of the Brigade was killed during the week the appliances were fired on during Friday when working in Lower Abbey Street. 

He wrote that "We were making excellent progress towards stopping the fire on both sides of Abbey Street when the bullets began to fly among us. We were being deliberately fired at. I had two men up on fire escapes and the bullets struck their ladders. Our engines were shot at from the directions of Westmoreland Street and Aston's Quay. Bullets hit the engines going through the mudguards and through the tires. I instantly called the men off to take cover. I abandoned the engines and hose on the streets and rushed the men in batches in motor ambulances home to their stations." Captain Purcell was awarded the bronze medal of the British Fire Prevention Committee in recognition of the services of the Brigade during the Rising. 

Order of Saint John of Jerusalem
The General Chapter of the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem awarded silver and bronze medals and certificates of honor for meritorious duty by members of the Order, the British Red Cross Society, hospital staff and unattached members of the public during the Easter Rising. The numbers participating and the distribution of awards is given in Table 4. The award of silver medals for ambulance work in Ireland was unique, the occasion of the rebellion being the first on record for the conferring of such distinctions. The recipients of the silver medal were Doctor Ella Webb, Doctor John Lumsden, Mrs. Constance Heppell-Marr, Mr. William 0. Smith and Mrs. Edith C. Chaytor who was not attached to any auxiliary services. She was the wife of Mr. Herbert S. Chaytor, Secretary, Royal Irish Automobile Club, who was awarded a bronze medal. 

In the spring of 1916, the British Government introduced two new medals for bravery, the Military Cross, for officers, and the Military Medal, open to men and women. The Military Medal was intended primarily for private soldiers, but among the first recipients were two nurses, who were awarded it for their 'bravery under fire' during the Easter Rising.

Irish Times
On 25th January 1917, The Irish Times published an editorial entitled The Rebellion on the occasion of the publication of one of the many lists of honors for services rendered in connection with the war. The list included the names of "a considerable number of officers and men who did conspicuously good work in the suppression of the Irish Rebellion." The editorial concluded "The names of Miss Louisa Nolan and Miss Florence Williams, in the list of awards of the Military Medals," may be a puzzle.

Table 4: Auxiliary Medical and First Aid Services Easter 1916 Numbers Participating

Ambulance Division 181 Nursing Division 232

Awards by Order of St. John of Jerusalem

Silver Medal
Bronze Medal
(Men) 9
(Women) 10
Certificate of Honour 
(Men) 47
(Women) 24

Note: Includes St. John Ambulance Brigade members, British Red Cross Society members, Hospital staff, Fire Service staff and unattached civilians, readers, but they are well and honorably known in Dublin. They are the names of two brave women who rescued wounded soldiers under the fire of the hottest fighting in the whole record of that hideous week." 

Sinn Fein Rebellion Handbook, Easter 1916. The Irish Times, 1917.
Max Caulfield, The Easter Rebellion. Gill and MacMillan, 1995.
Report of Work done by St. John Ambulance Brigade during the Sinn Fein Rebellion. Dublin, 1916. The Medical Directory, 1916.
Eoin O'Brien, The Charitable Infirmary, Jervis Street 1718-1987. The Anniversary Press, 1987.
David Mitchell, A Peculiar Place, The Adelaide Hospital, Dublin 1839-1989. Blackwater, 1989.
J. B. Lyons, The Quality of Mercer's, The Story of Mercer's Hospital 1734-1991. Glendale Publishing, 1991.
J. B. Lyons, An Assembly of Irish Surgeons. The Glendale Press, 1984.
David Coakley, Baggot Street, A Short History of the Royal City of Dublin Hospital. Criterion Press,1995.
J.D. H. Widdess, RCSI and its Medical School. (2nd Ed.) E. & S. Livingstone, London, 1967. 
Peter Gatenby, Dublin's Meath Hospital. Town House, Dublin, 1996.
Elizabeth Malcolm, Swift's Hospital. Gill and MacMillan, 1989.
An tOglac, Vol. 1, No. 12, Autumn 1966.
The Capuchin Annual 1966.
F. 0. C. Meenan, St. Vincent's Hospital, 1834-1994, Gill and Macmillan, 1995.
Desmond Ryan, The Rising, Golden Eagle Books, 1966.
Dr. Louis Courtney, Reminiscences of The Easter Rising, RCSI Library.
Minutes of Quarterly Meeting of the Municipal Council of the City of Dublin, 3 July 1916. Dublin City Archives.
The Irish Military Guide, - June 1913.
The Irish Military Guide, July - December, 1915.
Files relating to Easter Rising held at Military Archives.

The author wishes to record his grateful thanks to Ms. Mary O'Doherty, The Mercer Library, RCSI, Tom O'Connor, Curator, Dublin Civic Museum, Brian Siggins, Old Dublin Society, the staff of Gilbert Library, the staff of the Dublin City Archives and the staff of Military Archives, Cathal Brugha Barracks.
Photo scenes from the 
EasterRising in Dublin
courtesy of "Images for Easter Rising,",
Editors note: Apologies to the author, whose name was lost in transcription from a download. Credit will be given immediately if this individual can provide a name to


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